Fungi reproduce asexual and sexual.
The hat mushrooms belong to a group of fungi called basidiomycetes. Let us consider this group to explain in a simplified way how the reproduction of multicellular fungi occurs.
As we have seen, the mycelium is formed by a tangle of filaments called hyphae. In terrestrial fungi, the mycelium develops mainly underground. But fertile hyphae organize, usually in the air, a structure called the fruiting body. This structure contains a "hat" bearing several sporangia. Each sporangium is a structure that produces reproduction units called spores.
Once produced in sporangia, spores are limited in the environment and can spread by wind action, for example; Upon finding favorable conditions in a certain place, the spores germinate and give rise to hyphae that will form a new fungus. The number of fruiting bodies emitted by a hat mushroom varies by species. The mycelium of a single mushroom Agaricus bisporus, edible and known as champignon, is capable of emitting on average 80 to 100 "hats" in the air.
How Fungi Get Food
The fungi do not have chlorophyll, are heterotrophs, so are not able to produce their own food. They can be decomposers, parasites or live associated with other beings, as you will see below.
The fungi, when eating, remove from the remains of plants and animals the organic matter that is used by your body. In doing so, they break down, that is, they rot organic matter. A rotten tomato, for example, becomes "hollow" as its matter is broken down by the fungi.
Parasitic fungi live at the expense of other living things, cause disease in plants and animals. In plants, some of the most well-known diseases are coffee, bean and wheat "rust" or sugarcane "coal"; and the "wilting" of cotton.
Farmers use fungicides to eliminate plant fungi. It is now common to select genetically resistant plants for planting.
Fungi are able to penetrate the cellulose layer that protects plants. Some destroy the substance responsible for stiffening the trunk and stem of plants.
Fungal diseases are known as mycoses. Among those that can affect humans, we can mention the "frog", common in the mouth of babies, and the chilblains on the feet. There are mycoses that attack internal organs, for example the lungs, and can cause the death of the individual.
Fungi can infect our skin and multiply causing mycosis. For this multiplication to occur, conditions that favor the action of the fungi are necessary: moisture and heat, common in the groin, between the fingers (especially the toes) and the scalp; From these regions the fungi can spread to other areas of the body.
How to Avoid Mycosis
- Wash with soap and water, as hygiene is the best way to prevent it.
- Avoid heat and moisture in skin fold areas: dry them well after bathing; do not stay long with damp bathing suits (swimsuit and shorts, for example).
- Wear light and light clothing during the summer.
- Avoid continued use of sneakers, rubber shoes or tight shoes.
- Wear clear, clean and well-dried socks.
- Keep nails short and clean.