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7.S: Conventional and Sustainable Agriculture (Summary) - Biology

7.S: Conventional and Sustainable Agriculture (Summary) - Biology


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Summary

In agriculture and horticulture, soil generally refers to the medium for plant growth, typically material within the upper meter or two. Alternative and sustainable practices in farming and land use include organic agriculture, integrated pest management and biological control.

Review Questions

  1. Which of the following is not one of the five soil-forming factors?
    1. Climate
    2. Organisms
    3. Relief
    4. Transpiration rate
    5. Time
  2. You analyze a soil sample for a farmer that has been dealing with fertility issues on her land. You find that it is deficient in all of the soil-derived macronutrients. Which one of the following is macronutrient derived from the soil?
    1. carbon
    2. nitrogen
    3. hydrogen
    4. iron
    5. oxygen
  3. The farmer adjacent to your land plants a single crop (soybean) over their entire 100 hectare field. This practice is known as a…
    1. Monoculture
    2. Crop plot
    3. Agriplot
    4. Rotational farming
    5. Millibar
  4. Salinization is bad for farmers because it results in…
    1. Pesticide resistance
    2. Increased salts in the soil
    3. Nutrient-poor soils
    4. Blight
    5. Desertification
  5. Besides being long-lasting, persistent organic pollutants share which of the following characteristics:
    1. accumulate in higher trophic levels and are toxic
    2. accumulate in lower trophic levels and are toxic
    3. accumulate in higher trophic levels and are infectious biological agents
    4. accumulate in lower trophic levels and are infectious biological agents
    5. Are toxic and infectious
  6. The grasshopper effect explains which one of the following phenomena?
    1. The mass migration patterns of insects that are similar to, and include, grasshoppers
    2. The lowering of nutrient capacity in soils due to the action of certain types of organisms
    3. The long-range movement of certain types of pollutants across different regions of the Earth
    4. The long-range atmospheric distribution of soil following tilling by farm equipment
    5. The spread of invasive species through international trade in potted plants
  7. An important goal of integrated pest management is to reduce the amount of pests while also…
    1. Reducing the amount of genetically modified crops grown
    2. Reducing the amount of fertilizer used
    3. Introducing species that prey upon and destroy pest species
    4. Integrating market-based strategies for maximization of profits
    5. Reducing the amount of synthetic chemical pesticides used
  8. Which one of the following describes the use of organisms to control pests?
    1. Bioremediation
    2. Intercropping
    3. Species niche partitioning
    4. Vector control
    5. Biological control
  9. What practice allows farmers to improve soil fertility, diversify their crops, and reduce pesticide costs by naturally breaking the cycle of weeds, insects, and diseases?
    1. Monoculture
    2. Biological control
    3. Crop sharing
    4. Crop rotation
    5. Soil tilling
  10. Which one of the following is more indicative of conventional agriculture, and not sustainable agriculture?
    1. Biological control
    2. Intercropping
    3. Monocultures
    4. Integrated pest management
    5. Minimal tillage

See Appendix for answers

References

Kelly, L. (2005). The global integrated pest management facility. World Bank, Washington, DC. ©World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/...le/10986/19053. Available under Creative Commons Attribution License License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0). Modified from Original.

NAL. (2007). Sustainable agriculture: Definitions and terms. Retrieved from afsic.nal.usda.gov/sustainabl...d-terms-1#toc1. Modified from Original.

Theis T. & Tomkin J. (Eds.). (2015). Sustainability: A comprehensive foundation. OpenStax CNX. Retrieved from http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected] Available under Creative Commons Attribution License License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0). Modified from Original.

World Bank. (2004). Persistent organic pollutants: Backyards to borders. Washington, DC. © World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/...le/10986/14896. Available under Creative Commons Attribution License License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0 IGO). (2005). Sustainable pest management: Achievements and challenges. © World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/8646.Available under Creative Commons Attribution License License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0). (2008). Sustainable land management sourcebook. © World Bank.Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/6478. Available under Creative Commons Attribution License License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0). Modified from Original.

World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development. (2009). Gender in agriculture sourcebook. Washington, DC: World Bank. © World Bank.Retrieved from openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/6603. Modified from Original.

Page attribution: Essentials of Environmental Science by Kamala Doršner is licensed under CC BY 4.0. Modified from the original by Matthew R. Fisher. “Review Questions” is licensed under CC BY 4.0 by Matthew R. Fisher.


When an ecosystem is able to maintain and retain productivity for a long period of time, it can be classified as sustainable. There are numerous defects in the methods by which humans conduct their agricultural activity. They often consider their needs and neglect those of other living organisms. This in turn results in destruction of these organisms which can have an effect on the ecological cycle and result in undesirable outputs from farming. The prolonged effects of such destructive methods of farming also include diminishing of biodiversity.

The essence of agriculture is to create products for humans which they can use for food, or for recreational uses in cases of tobacco. Some individuals and countries also depend on agriculture for economic purposes however this raises the question, if farming is intended to be beneficial and humans rely on the lands for numerous purposes, what is the essence of damaging land that brings a vast amount of benefits to society? While food production in the past century has risen gradually over time, it has adversely affected soil productivity, which will have affects on food availability in the near future.

Even though agriculture is a basis for humans well being by providing food, it also resulting in consequences on a wide scale to soil indiscreetly and must be changed to maintain needs of present without compromising food production for future generations. For this reason agricultural scientists have strategized methods by which humans can farm and benefit both themselves and the environment. The term sustainable agriculture was first used by Gordon McClymont, an Australian agricultural scientist.

This paper will analyze the biological methods which have been used in sustainable agriculture and illustrate the mechanisms by which they are used. It will also analyze the reasons why implementing such policies is beneficial to society. One major benefit of sustainable agriculture is that it helps preserve and maintain the ecosystem, which despite ignorance of most individuals, has an essential part in many aspects of human life. Some of the major energy sources used by humans have been predicted to run out in the next few decades.

Hence, the country will require ecosystems as an energy source and to some extent a financial resource (Day et al., 2009). Ecosystems as an energy source are also beneficial to the quality of air in the environment as they produce less harmful byproducts. The biodiversity in different nations will determine the amount of energy sources, which can in turn result in an improvement the nation’s economy. This situation requires ecologists to further studies into functioning of ecosystems and find ways in which they can be preserved and used as energy sources (Day et al., 2009). Other strategies such as implementing Participatory Learning and Action Research and Systems Ecology for improvement of approaches taken in research have been suggested.

This in turn will enable the formulation of strategies that allow a smooth transition of current agricultural methods into approaches that are more sustainable. The two procedures have similar foundations and hence can be merged and utilized to obtain sustainable agricultural transitions (Eksvard & Rydberg, 2010). The methods can be used to improve the decision making as they analyze human activity from a broader perspective and offer a large scale upon which patterns of human activity are compared. These two


The future of CRISPR technologies in agriculture

Conventional plant breeding is unlikely to meet increasing food demands and other environmental challenges. By contrast, CRISPR technology is erasing barriers to genome editing and could revolutionize plant breeding. However, to fully benefit from the CRISPR revolution, we should focus on resolving its technical and regulatory uncertainties.

Modern agriculture exemplifies how research and technology can come together to improve crop yield and quality. Although conventional breeding is now much faster than it was 50 years ago, it is likely unable to keep up with the increasing demand for food and with the global environmental challenges that we face. As long as plant breeding remains fully dependent on finding plant populations with sufficient variation and on conventional crossing approaches to introduce traits into target crops, time and resource limitations to crop improvement will persist. CRISPR technologies could surmount these limitations and accelerate plant breeding beyond what was previously imaginable. Although sometimes subjected to exaggerated headlines, the use of CRISPR in agriculture should be best considered as simply 'a new breeding method' that can produce identical results to conventional methods in a much more predictable, faster and even cheaper manner.


Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991)

The more than 20 scholarly reports from all parts of the United States presented in this volume firmly established one fact: Despite the continuing chorus of criticism aimed at low-input sustainable agriculture (LISA), there already is an impressive body of thoroughly documented scientific evidence relating to all aspects of sustainable or alternative agriculture. This much is established, and this much marks a significant milestone in the latest campaign to improve the performance of U.S. agriculture.

What remains in doubt is interpretation of the scientific evidence. As Michael Duffy explained in his presentation on economic considerations, manure and crop rotations have been proved to be effective. The question is how they fit the goals of farmers and society. In other words, to what extent will the individual farmer be willing to sacrifice higher short-term profits for the rewards of environmental stewardship and other intangibles? To what extent will an environmentally aroused public and the U.S. Congress provide cash incentives, at least for a transitional period, to help farmers cut back on their use of purchased commercial fertilizers and pesticides?

The chapters in this volume have provided many important research findings. Some particular points from particular chapters are presented below.

North Dakota's John Gardner and colleagues, in their paper &ldquoOverview of Current Sustainable Agriculture Research,&rdquo and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Assistant Secretary for Science and Education Charles Hess brought out a key point: there is a great reluctance within the scientific community to challenge accepted wisdom and a great reluctance for scientists to challenge their department heads.

This reluctance will be a continuing constraint, one that needs to be counterbalanced through greater efforts to pursue new research avenues.

A second key point is that no matter how overwhelming the evidence, interpretations will continue to differ. Dale Darling discussed both points clearly. During the workshop, Darling summed up his position by commenting that when he was a boy, his family's dairy farm in Vermont was 100 percent organic &ldquobecause we didn't know any better.&rdquo

No matter what the evidence may be, interpretation of this evidence will differ. Some differing opinions on the value of fertilizers of farm origin and current research findings were presented by Harold Reetz. This volume includes strong voices calling for going slowly enough in areas such as new groundwater protection legislation to avoid the overkill that is inevitable if public policy decisions are based on public fears rather than on sound scientific evidence. The need is to avoid a situation in which economic costs to the farm sector and its customers might far outweigh the economic and environmental gains sought by society as a whole.

Charles Hess provided a very strong response in that key area, a response that demonstrated that the Bush administration has come a very long way from the days of the Reagan administration. Hess indicated that there is a very narrow window, that the farm sector is under pressure to respond quickly and responsibly to public concerns in currently explosive areas such as food safety and water quality. He warned that there must be a positive response to the issues being raised. He also indicated that it is time to be proactive rather than defensive. To do otherwise would be to invite legislation and regulation that may remove the decision-making power and constrain the flexibility to adopt management practices that best fit each farming situation.

Raymond E. Frisbie, from Texas A&M University, and Iowa State Legislator Paul Johnson, in his remarks to workshop attendees, reinforced the point that agriculture must change its ways voluntarily or agriculture will inevitably find itself burdened with a mandated regulatory straitjacket tailored by other groups with little understanding of farm-sector realities.

The farm-sector response will not be easy. It will require broad agreement on often hard-to-accept voluntary constraints. In addition, because public funds are limited at all levels&mdashfederal, state, and local&mdashthe farm sector faces the challenge of working out a priority list of goals that will be acceptable to the public, to the U.S. Congress, and to the whole range of often competing government agencies. This challenge is complicated by the fact that along with achieving consensus support for more environmentally benign farming practices, these general practices necessarily will include an immense range of options in order to respond to site-specific problems.

How far has agriculture gone along this challenging response road? The

research findings presented in this volume prove that there has been progress, both in the area of scientific research and in the practical changes that have been made.

Both the scientific and regulatory communities have made progress in identifying goals, specifically in recognizing the importance of focusing sustainable agriculture systems on three equally important goals:

improving farm-level profitability,

improving the U.S. farm sector's international competitiveness, and

at the same time, reducing environmental damage caused by farming practices.

Agreement on the equal importance of profitability, competitiveness, and environmental concerns is a major step forward in itself and is part of a three-stage progression. September 1989 marked stage one. Publication of the National Research Council's (1989) report Alternative Agriculture consolidated what had been learned. This important report stated the issues clearly and established that sustainable agriculture &ldquoisn't just for breakfast anymore&rdquo&mdashthat sustainable agriculture is a real meat-and-potatoes system capable of moving U.S. production agriculture, as a whole, closer to the three goals of profitability, competitiveness, and environmental stewardship.

The workshop on which this volume is based was part of stage two, that is, the creation of a vast data base of sound, replicated research findings that increasingly will make it possible for any commercial farmer in any part of the country, with any crop or livestock mixture, to improve his or her own operation's profitability, competitiveness, and environmental stewardship.

Because this seminar has proved that stage two is well established, stage three&mdashwhen the sustainable practices detailed in Alternative Agriculture will be in widespread use throughout production agriculture&mdashcannot be far off.

These points can be illustrated by a statement made at the workshop by Charles Hess:

Overall, today's agriculture is being challenged to operate in an environmentally responsible fashion, while at the same time continuing to produce abundant supplies of food and fiber both economically and profitably. On one hand, agriculture needs to be highly efficient and internationally competitive in order to be economically viable. On the other hand, it needs a system of production which is environmentally sensitive, sustainable, and whose products are viewed as safe.

Basing his conclusion on the solid research findings already available,

Hess stated firmly that he believes that both the economic and environmental goals are achievable. At the workshop, he explained:

We feel it is the department's responsibility to provide farmers with a range of options that best fit their economic and environmental situation. The choices range from the optimal use of fertilizers, pesticides, and other off-farm purchases in conjunction with best management practices to operations which actively seek to minimize their off-farm purchases and emphasize crop rotation, integration of livestock and crop production, and mechanical or biological weed control.

To support this significant policy change&mdashand to guard against the regulatory overkill that he and other speakers warned against&mdashHess pointed to the need for further government investment in research, because &ldquowe must work to get more hard data so we can make informed decisions based in science rather than in emotion. &rdquo It is an important step forward to have this explicit USDA support for sustainable agriculture research.

As we learned from key speakers at the workshop, such as Michael Duffy and Robert Papendick, researchers themselves must take the next step and, in fact, are doing that in a big way. Throughout the country, both farm- and laboratory-level researchers and their bureaucratic funding sources now recognize that what is needed is thorough interdisciplinary research focusing on far more than just agronomics.

Speakers explained that the big research payoffs are coming because individual LISA research projects today integrate the full range of interrelated factors including agronomics, economics, social policy, and government farm program biases. Researchers today, as described in this volume by R. James Cook and Gail Richardson, are not just confining themselves to academic research. Instead, they are doing what must be done to satisfy the site-specific requirements of a truly sustainable system: they are working with commercial farmers in the fields and are giving these farmers an active role in the research process.

Researchers are also deeply involved in trying to unravel the complex and often conflicting effects of both current commodity programs and the variety of proposed 1990 farm bill changes.

Perhaps most important for the evolution of LISA research was definite evidence that the spirit of scholarly objectivity is replacing crusading zeal. Thomas Dobbs and colleagues straightforwardly explained their findings that after a 5-year comparison of a conventional farm with an alternative LISA farm, average net returns were higher for the conventional system when the premium prices for organically grown crops were replaced with conventional prices. Dobbs noted that the premiums for organically grown products actually received by the case study farm brought its profit above that of the comparison conventional farm.

Another two-pronged sign of LISA researchers' maturity was revealed. First, no one tried to sell his or her own specific definition of LISA. That must be considered progress, because as stated repeatedly, LISA needs to operate in very different ways, depending not only on the part of the country and the type of crop or livestock mixture but also depending on the specific characteristics of the individual farm and the individual farm manager, on his or her own management skills, and on the local availability of farm labor.

Second, it also must be considered a sign of progress that consensus seemed to emerge that it is time to replace the term LISA with the term sustainable agriculture. No one wants to abandon this attractive acronym however, a number of speakers pointed to problems with the low-input connotation, noting that the low-input label automatically attracts the easy criticism that LISA is antichemical or even antitechnology per se.

LISA proponents appear ready to drop the acronym in order to shift attention away from the secondary effect, which in many, but not all, cases will be reduced use of purchased inputs. Instead, their aim is to emphasize what matters most: sustainable agriculture's primary goal of enhancing profitability, competitiveness, and environmental stewardship.

Charles Benbrook summed up this shift, emphasizing that &ldquothe goal of LISA systems really need not be viewed as reducing the use of pesticides and fertilizers. Lessened reliance on agrichemicals, though, is often one of the positive outcomes of successful adoption of LISA systems.&rdquo As he and others have explained, fully sustainable, site-specific best management practices may call for increased rather than decreased use of chemical inputs under the right conditions.

From James Cook's key research on the 65 percent boost in wheat yields through the use of a 3-year rotation to break the cycle of harmful pathogens in the root zone, to Gail Richardson's use of neglected, low-technology gypsum blocks for monitoring soil moisture, the workshop and this volume on which it is based have broken important ground.

As has been stressed throughout, there is much more work left to be done. That is the challenge: to continue building on the sound scientific foundation revealed here.

To sum up both what research has already accomplished and the major challenges for future research, as well as for legislation over the years ahead, a key passage from Charles Benbrook is appropriate:

Often, farmers are confronted with choices and sacrifices because of seemingly unavoidable trade-offs. An investment in a conservation system may improve soil and water quality, yet do so at some sacrifice in near-term economic performance. Diversification may increase the efficiency of resource use and bring within reach certain biological benefits, yet may require additional machinery and a more stable and


III. Core and hub microbiota

Several studies have identified a ‘core microbiome’, that is a group of microbes commonly found within a host’s microbiome, through the integration of high-throughput sequencing-based studies of plants growing at different locations with persistence of association as selection criteria (Blaustein et al., 2017 Hamonts et al., 2018 L. Xu et al., 2018 Compant et al., 2019 Simonin et al., 2020 Singh et al., 2020b ). Interestingly, there is significant overlap between the members of the so-called ‘core microbiome’ across multiple accessions of one plant species and across phylogenetically distinct plants, raising the possibility that certain bacterial groups have had a long association with plants (Blaustein et al., 2017 Hamonts et al., 2018 J. Xu et al., 2018 Simonin et al., 2020 ). Studies also have shown that a set of microbial communities form stable associations with particular hosts across temporal and geographic scales (Blaustein et al., 2017 Hamonts et al., 2018 J. Xu et al., 2018 ). In addition to being persistent and prevalent, these microbes are highly abundant. In wheat (Simonin et al., 2020 ) and sugarcane (de Souza et al., 2016 ) the ‘core’ bacteria represent only a small fraction of microbial richness (3% and 20% for wheat and sugarcane, respectively), but they account for a significant portion of the relative microbial abundance (50% and 90% for wheat and sugarcane, respectively). Core genera include bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Cupriavidus, Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Shinella, Mesorhizobium, Burkholderia, Cellvibrio, Sphingomonas, Variovorax, Paraburkholderia, Dyadobacter, Novosphingobium, Devosia and Ensifer (de Souza et al., 2016 Hamonts et al., 2018 L. Xu et al., 2018 Simonin et al., 2020 ). Groups of microbes within the ‘core microbiome’ are postulated to perform roles critical to plant colonization, and individual core group members possess plant growth promotion traits (Dai et al., 2020 ). Therefore, exploring the ‘core functional microbiota’ as a basic component may provide a path to harnessing plant–microbiome interactions (Lemanceau et al., 2017 ). However, while microbial functional traits can directly affect host physiology and performance (Trivedi et al., 2020 ), there is little evidence that the occupancy frequency of core microbiomes provides benefits to the host. Also, a close association of core microbiomes with their host does not indicate the involvement of coevolutionary processes during selective enrichment. Although the identification of a ‘core microbiome’ is a useful first step in reducing the complexity of the plant-associated microbiome, systematic reductionist efforts that incorporate deconstruction (establishment of a culture collection of core members) and reconstruction (core microbiota reconstitution and experiments using plant systems) phases are needed to test the significance of ‘core microbiomes’ on plant fitness parameters.

Bioinformatics tools that infer microbial cooccurrence networks have revealed ‘spatially distinct and highly connected’ modules within the microbial networks (Banerjee et al., 2018 ). Within these networks, a few microbes, called ‘hub’ microbes (analogous to a keystone guild), are highly connected with other microbes and may play a key role in supporting the network structure and orchestrating community-scale processes important for plant–microbiome interactions (Banerjee et al., 2018 ). These hub microbes control, negatively or positively, the abundances, and possibly functions, of other microbes and transmit the effect of the host onto the network of the plant-associated microbiome (Hamonts et al., 2018 Roman-Reyna et al., 2019 ). As a result, perturbation of hubs can have significant downstream effects on the wider network, resulting in the loss of plant–microbiota-mediated functions. For example, removal of the hub species Enterobacter cloacae from a seven-member microbial community led to dramatic changes in the community composition, with near complete extinction of other members except Curtobacterium pusillum (Niu et al., 2017 ). While beneficial keystones increase the overall diversity (Herren & McMahon, 2018 ), pathogenic keystones tend to reduce diversity (Agler et al., 2016 ). The obligate biotrophic oomycete Albugo laibachii acts as a keystone species and stabilizes the postinfection community composition, thus reducing secondary infection from other pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana. If these hub organisms are crucial to sustaining plant health (Agler et al., 2016 ), they could represent prime targets for novel crop management strategies. Therefore, their identity, functional role and how they perform under stress conditions need to be elucidated.


Book Description

Dalbergia sissoo (Shisham) is a perennial tree species native to the Asian subcontinent. It is an economically significant tree for its value in forestry, agroforestry, and horticulture. The high-quality timber imparts this tree species a significant commercial value. Besides valuable timber, it also exhibits medicinal, industrial, and agroforestry allied attributes. This tree has been introducing to the geographical regions where it does not exist naturally, which indicates its significant properties, getting diverse communities' attention. This book provides information about this tree species based on the latest research trends and development on the subject. It addresses researchers, forestry specialists, natural resource managers, or all those interested in the rehabilitation, maintenance, and management of Dalbergia sissoo tree resources.


The Benefits Of A Healthy Soil Microbiome

Plants will take the fast-food route to nutrition (from synthetic fertilizers), but they are missing out on three important benefits of soil microbial cycling:

  • Absorbing macro and micronutrients from microbes (better nourished)
  • Increases stress tolerance (improved resiliency)
  • Inhibits soil pathogens (reduced disease effects)

So rhyzophagy isn’t just about nutrition. The microbial nutrient cycling process also improves the plant’s stress response and degrades any soil pathogens, essentially improving the plant’s environmental immune system. Rhyzophagy makes plants more resilient in heat, drought, and salt tolerance – making them overall hardier in the face of environmental change.

All active organic matter can feed soil microbes but optimizing microbial performance requires a superfood diet like PhycoTerra’s microalgae soil amendment. Feeding your crops through microbial nutrient cycling, rather than pure synthetics, breeds confidence that your crops can weather unpredictable seasons. Nature nourishes better!


Primary annotated entries are printed in Bold type titles appearing under “Other works by this author,” notes or citation text are printed in italics.

1994 Organic Farm Management Handbook 165
60,000 More Every 24 Hours! 71

An ACRES U.S.A. Primer 128
An Address on the Opposite Results of Exhausting and Fertilizing Systems of Agriculture: Read before the South-Carolina Institute, at its Fourth Annual Fair, November 18th, 1852 8
Agri-culture: Reconnecting People, Land and Nature 175
Agricultural Changes 24
Agricultural Ecology: An Analysis of World Food Production Systems 125
Agricultural Ecosystems Unifying Concepts 142
Agricultural, Geological, and Descriptive Sketches of Lower North Carolina, and the Similar Adjacent Lands 8
Agricultural Land Retention Act: Report Together with Dissenting Views to Accompany H.R. 11122 123
The Agricultural Link: How Environmental Deterioration Could Disrupt Economic Progress 117
Agricultural Research Alternatives 108
Agricultural Resources Consumed in Beef Production 108
An Agricultural Testament 52
Agriculture: A Course of Eight Lectures 36
Agriculture, a New Approach 82
Agriculture and Human Values 200, 213
Agriculture and the Environment 151
Agriculture, Geology, and Society in Antebellum South Carolina: The Private Diary of Edmund Ruffin, 1843 8
Agriculture of Tomorrow 65
Agriculture, the Only Right Approach: Science Says There is a Difference 82
Agriculture Yearbook, 1923. 35
Agroecology: Ecological Processes in Sustainable Agriculture 164
Agroecology in Action: Extending Alternative Agriculture through Social Networks 194
Agroecology: Researching the Ecological Basis for Sustainable Agriculture 164
Agroecology: The Ecology of Sustainable Food Systems 164
Agroecology the Scientific Basis of Alternative Agriculture 135
Agroecosystem Sustainability: Developing Practical Strategies 164
Agroecosystems in a Changing Climate 193
The Albrecht Papers 34
All Flesh is Grass: The Pleasures and Promises of Pasture Farming 102
Altars of Unhewn Stone: Science and the Earth 129
Alternative Agriculture 162
Alternative Agriculture: An Introduction and Overview: Symposium Proceedings, March 1984, Washington, D.C. 139
Alternative Agriculture: Federal Incentives and Farmers’ Opinions: Report to Congressional Requesters 168
Alternative Methods of Agriculture 109
American Agriculture in a Hungry World 117
The American Poultry Yard Comprising the Origin, History, and Description of the Different Breeds of Domestic Poultry 12
Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh 187
Animal Ecology 37
Animal Ecology: Aims and Methods 37
Animal Ecology and Evolution 37
Animals and Other People 67
Annotated Bibliography of Biological Agriculture: A Publication of the Small Farm Research Association 197
Arator: Being a Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical and Political, in Sixty-one Numbers, by a Citizen of Virginia 7
Artificial Manure Production on the Farm 34
Assessing the Health of Agroecosystems: A Socieoeconomic Perspective 171
The Australian Keyline Plan 85
Autobiography of a Farm Boy 20

The Basic Book of Organic Gardening 103
Basic Formula to Create Community Supported Agriculture 160
Basic Techniques in Ecological Farming: Papers Presented at the 2nd International Conference held by the IFOAM, Montreal, October 1-5, 1978 134
Becoming Native to this Place 129
The “Bedrock Lands” of Sacramento County 23
Better Grassland Sward Ecology, Botany, Management 91
Beyond Oil: The Threat to Food and Fuel in the Coming Decades 150
Beyond the Green Revolution: The Ecology and Politics of Global Agricultural Development 118
Beyond the Limits: Confronting Global Collapse, Envisioning a Sustainable Future 104
A Bibliography for Small and Organic Farmers: 1920-1978 122
Bio-dynamic Farming and Gardening: Soil Fertility Renewal and Preservation 47
Bio-dynamic Sprays 110
Biochemistry and Methodology of Composting 190
Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems 135
Biodynamic Agriculture: An Introduction 110
The Biodynamic Farm: Agriculture in the Service of the Earth and Humanity 110
Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 210
Biological Control by Natural Enemies 95
Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds 95
Biological Floriculture and Horticulture 212
Biological Husbandry: A Scientific Approach to Organic Farming 133
Biologische Landwirtschaft 110
Biology of the Living Landscape 43
Bioshelters, Ocean Arks, City Farming: Ecology as the Basis of Design 144
Biotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture 157
Bodenfruchtbarkeit eine Studie Biologischen Denkens 99
Booker T. Whatley's Handbook on How to Make $100,000 Farming 25 Acres: With Special Plans for Prospering on 10 to 200 Acres 155
Botany of Desire: A Plant's Eye View of the World 192
Bread from Stones. A New and Rational System of Land Fertilization and Physical Regeneration 19
Breaking New Ground 26
A Brief Compend of American Agriculture 11
Brief History of Sustainable Agriculture 204
Bringing the Food Economy Home: Local Alternatives to Global Agribusiness 187
Building and Using our Sun-heated Greenhouse: Grow Vegetables All Year-round 83

California Certified Organic Farmers 1989 Certification Handbook 153
The Carbon Connection 128
Cattle Ranges of the Southwest: A History of the Exhaustion of the Pasturage and Suggestions for its Restoration 21
The Challenge of Earthworm Research 103
Challenge of Landscape: the Development and Practice of Keyline 85
Chemical Letters 9
Chemical to Sustainable 157
Chicken Little, Tomato Sauce and Agriculture: Who Will Produce Tomorrow’s Food? 119
Citizenship Papers 113
The City Forest: The Keyline Plan for the Human Environment Revolution 85
The Clifton Park System of Farming and Laying Down Land to Grass 24
Climate and Plant Growth in Certain Vegetative Associations 31
Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed 188
Coming Home to Eat: The Pleasures and Politics of Local Foods 149
Common-sense Compost Making by the Quick Return Method 51
A Comparison of the Production, Economic Returns, and Energy-intensiveness of Corn Belt Farms that Do and Do Not Use Inorganic Fertilizers and Pesticides 108
Compost for Garden Plot or Thousand-acre Farm: A Practical Guide to Modern Methods 57
Compost Making: Practical Advice on Nature's Method of Restoring Life in the Soil 51
The Compost Manufacturers Manual the Practice of Large Scale Composting 47
Composting and the Roots of Sustainable Agriculture 196
Composting for Disposal of Organic Refuse 78
Composting for the Tropics Written from the Experience of our Overseas Members for the Gardeners and Farmers of all Hot Countries 93
Conquest of the Land Through Seven Thousand Centuries 69
La Conservacion de las Tierras Indigenas en los Estados Unidos 64
The Conservation Diaries of Gifford Pinchot 26
Conservation Farming Practices and Flood Control 39
The Conservation of Natural Resources 26
The Conservation of Soil Moisture and Economy in the Use of Irrigation Water 23
Conserving Migratory Pollinators and Nectar Corridors in Western North America 149
Continuing the Good Life 83
The Contrary Farmer 102
The Cornucopia Papers 131, 103
CRC Handbook of Agricultural Energy Potential of Developing Countries 137
CRC Handbook of Alternative Cash Crops 137
CRC Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture 127
Crop Production and Environment 49
The Cultivation and Varieties of Oats 44
Cyclopedia of American Agriculture: A Popular Survey of Agricultural Conditions, Practices and Ideals in the United States and Canada 32

De Re Rustica 1
The Decreasing Fertility of Western Soil 74
Deserts on the March 43
Destructive Effects of Winds on Sandy Soils and Light Sandy Loams: With Methods of Protection 29
Developing and Extending Sustainable Agriculture: A New Social Contract 190
Die Fruchtbarkeit der Erde 47
Diet for a Small Planet 101
The Discipline of Peace 56
The Distribution of the Salts in Alkali Soils 23
Domestic Animals. History and Description of the Horse, Mule, Cattle, Sheep, Swine, Poultry, and Farm Dogs. With Directions for their Management, Breeding, Crossing, Rearing, Feeding, and Preparation for a Profitable Market. Also, their Diseases and Remed 11
Domestic Needs of Farm Women 33
Down to Earth: Fruit and Vegetable Growing 93

Early American Soil Conservationists 209
Early Roots of the Organic Movement: A Plant Nutrition Perspective 205
The Early Years of the LISA , SARE , and ACE Programs: Reflections of the Founding Director 208
The Earth's Green Carpet 68
The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Agriculture 175
The Earth’s Face and Human Destiny 47
Eat your Heart Out: Food Profiteering in America 105
EcoAgriculture: A Review of its History and Philosophy 210
Ecolabels and the Greening of the Food Market 108
Ecological and General Systems: An Introduction to Systems Ecology 81
Ecological Conscience 75
Ecological Effects of Pesticides on Nontarget Species 127
Ecology and Our Endangered Life-support Systems 81
The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants 37
Economic and Legal Analysis of Strategies for Managing Agricultural Pollution of Ground Water 136
Economic Needs of Farm Women 33
Economics, Ethics, Ecology: Roots of Productive Conservation: Based on Material Presented at the 35th Annual Meeting of the Soil Conservation Society of America, August 4-August 6, 1980, Dearborn, Michigan 132
The Economics of Agri-environmental Policy 136
The Economics of Organic Farming 121
The Economics of Organic Farming: An International Perspective 165
Educational Needs of Farm Women 33
The Electric Oracle: Computer Models and Social Decisions 104
Elements of Soil Conservation 39
Emerging Issues in Water Management and Policy 136
Empty Breadbasket? The Coming Challenge to America’s Food Supply and What We Can Do About It: A Study of the U.S. Food System 131
Enduring Seeds: Native American Agriculture and Wild Plant Conservation 149
Energy Basis for Man and Nature 81
Energy Unbound: A Fable for America’s Future 115
Enough Food: Achieving Food Security through Regenerative Agriculture 147
Environment, Power, and Society 81
Environmental Accounting: EMERGY and Environmental Decision Making 81
Erosion Control in Japan 69
An Essay on Calcareous Manures 8
Essay on Manures 10, 4
Essays Upon Field-husbandry in New-England, as It is or May be Ordered 3
European Organic Production Statistics, 1993-1996 165
Experiences in Success: Case Studies in Growing Enough Food through Regenerative Agriculture 135
Experiments in Range Improvement in Central Texas 21
Exploratory Genetic Research Undertaken by CIMMYT in Maize, Wheat, Barley and Triticale 100

Factors of Soil Formation: A System of Quantitative Pedology 41
Fairness and Futurity: Essays on Environmental Sustainability and Social Justice 181
Family Friendly Farming: A Multi-generational Home-based Business Testament 186
The Farm that Won’t Wear Out 28
Farmer's Progress 60
The Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act of 1976 112
Farmers of Forty Centuries (or) Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea, and Japan 29
The Farmer’s Decision: Balancing Economic Agriculture Production with Environmental Quality 189
A Farmer’s Guide to the Bottom Line 128
Farming in Nature's Image: An Ecological Approach to Agriculture 170
The Farming Ladder 60
The Farming Manual 60
Farming on the Edge 179
Farming on the Fringe 152
Farming with Nature 77
The Feeding Web: Issues in Nutritional Ecology 119
Fertility Farming 88
Fertility Gardening 93
The Fertility of the Land: A Summary Sketch of the Relationship of Farm-practice to the Maintaining and Increasing of the Productivity of the Soil 20
Fertility Pastures: Herbal Leys as the Basis of Soil Fertility and Animal Husbandry 88
Fertility without Fertilizers: A Basic Approach to Organic Gardening 93
Fertilizer Application: Soil, Plant, Animal 91
Fertilizer-free Agriculture 70
Few Brass Tacks 67
Field and Laboratory Investigations in Agroecology 164
The Field Book of Manures, or, the American Muck Book 12
A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants: Eastern and Central North America 137
The Fight for Conservation 26
Fighting Like the Flowers: An Autobiography 93
Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry 2
Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act of 1990 (FACTA) 167
Food, Energy, and Society 127
Food, Farming and the Future 79
Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity 101
Food or Famine, the Challenge of Erosion 64
For All Generations: Making World Agriculture More Sustainable 158
For the Health of the Land: Previously Unpublished Essays and Other Writings 75
The Forest Problem 64
Forests and Floods 64
Forgotten Pollinators 149
The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms with Observations on their Habits 18
Four-season Harvest: Organic Vegetables from your Home Garden All Year Long 161
The Fourth National Organic Farmers' Survey: Sustaining Organic Farms in a Changing Organic Marketplace 178
From Columbus to ConAgra: The Globalization of Agriculture and Food 172
From Eco-cities to Living Machines: Principles of Ecological Design 144
From my Experience the Pleasures and Miseries of Life on a Farm 67
From the Ground Up: Rethinking Industrial Agriculture 187
From Vegetable Waste to Fertile Soil (Quick Return Compost) 51
Fundamentals of Ecology 81
Future Farms 2002: A Supermarket of Ideas: Conference Proceedings, November 15 and 16, 2002 184

Garden Success without Poison Sprays 63
Gardening with Nature: How to Grow Your own Vegetables, Fruits and Flowers by Natural Methods 84
Gardening without Poisons 96
Gardening without Work for the Aging, the Busy, and the Indolent 87
Gathering the Desert 149
Geisteswissenschaftliche Grundlagen zum Gedeihen der Landwirtschaft 36
Genetic Engineering in Agriculture: The Myths, Environmental Risks, and Alternatives 135
George Washington Carver in his Own Words 27
Germination of Five Wheat Varieties under Various Soil Conditions: Implications for Sustainable Agriculture 184
Getting Food from Water: A Guide to Background Aquaculture 102
The Gift of Good Land: Further Essays, Cultural and Agricultural 113
Global Citizen 104
Grass Productivity 91
Grass Tetany 91
Grazing Periods and Forage Production on the National Forests 31
Green Manuring and Manures 16
Green Manuring: Principles and Practice 38
Green Payments as Foreshadowed by EQIP 136
The Green Revolution: An Unfinished Agenda 100
Greener Pastures on Your Side of the Fence: Better Farming with Voisin Grazing Management 154
Guide to the Classification and Identification of the Actinomycetes and their Antibiotics 46
Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies 188

Handbook of Energy Crops 137
Handbook of Energy Utilization in Agriculture 127
Handbook of Legumes of World Economic Importance 137
Handbook of Medicinal Herbs 137
Handbook of Phytochemical Constituents of GRAS Herbs and Other Economic Plants 137
Hard Tomatoes, Hard Times: A Report of the Agribusiness Accountability Project on the Failure of America’s Land Grant College Complex 105
Health and the New Civilization 70
Herdsmanship 88
History, and Present Position of the Rothamsted Investigations 28
The History of Agriculture and the Environment 196, 207
History of Soil Use in the Wu t’ai Shan Area 69
A History of Sustainable Agriculture 202
Hoeing the Row Out: More than Three Decades of History 184
Holistic Management: A New Framework for Decision Making 159
Holistic Management Handbook: Health Land, Healthy Profits 159
Holistic Resource Management 159
Holistic Resource Management Workbook 159
The Holy Earth 32
A Home of Their Own 56
Homesteading: How to Find New Independence on the Land 102
Hope’s Edge: The Next Diet for a Small Planet 101
Horizontal Plowing and Hill-side Ditching 14
HortTechnology 205
How to Grow More Vegetables Than You Ever Thought Possible on Less Land Than You Can Imagine 107
How to Have a Green Thumb without an Aching Back: A New Method of Mulch Gardening 87
Humus and the Farmer 79
Humus: Origin, Chemical Composition, and Importance in Nature 46
Hungry For Profit: The Agribusiness Threat to Farmers, Food, and the Environment 182
The Husbandry of the Ancients 4

Impact of EC Regulation 2078 92 on the Development of Organic Farming in the European Union 165
Improving Land Use Policy Analysis in the Southeast: Lessons from Virginia’s Agricultural and Forestal District Act 136
The Indiana Food System: Sustainable or in Jeopardy? A Study of the Food System in Indiana 131
An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States 7
Integrated Pest Management: Its Role in the Evolution of Sustainable Agriculture 190
Internal Resources for Sustainable Agriculture 190
International Overview of Regeneration Agriculture 201
Introduction to Permaculture 120
Irrigation and Drainage: Principles and Practice of their Cultural Phases 29
Irrigation: Its Evils, the Remedies, and the Compensations 15

Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 195

The Keyline Plan 85

Laboratory Experiments in Sustainable Agriculture Wheat for Pasture: Mineral Nutrient Uptake 184
Labour in Agriculture: An International Survey 68
Land, Livestock and Human Nutrition in India 49
The Land Now and Tomorrow 44
Land Use, Food, Energy and Recreation 100
Lands Beyond the Forest 43
Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity 143
The Law and the Loaf 56
Lazy-bed Gardening: The Quick and Dirty Guide 107
Legume Bacteria with Reference to Light and Longevity 34
Legumes in Soil Conservation Practices 38
Ley Farming 44
Life and Environment 43
The Limits of the Earth 71
Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome's Project on the Predicament of Mankind 104
Limits to Growth - The 30 Year Update 104
Linkages Between Farming and Other Economic Activities in Agriculturally-dependent Areas 108
Living from the Land: A Guide to Farm Management 79
The Living Land: Agriculture, Food and Community Regeneration in Rural Europe 175
The Living Soil 58
The Living Soil and the Haughley Experiment 58
The Living Soil Evidence of the Importance to Human Health of Soil Vitality, with Special Reference to Post-war Planning 58
Living the Good Life: Being a Plain Practical Account of a Twenty Year Project in a Self-subsistent Homestead in Vermont, Together with Remarks on How to Live Sanely and Simply in a Troubled World 83
Look to the Land 53
Low-input/Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Projects for 1988 158
L’Agriculture et la Santé 61

The Maine Food System: A Time for Change: A Study of the Food System of Maine, by Raymond Wirth 131
Make Friends with Your Land: A Chemist Looks at Organiculture 84
Malabar Farm 67
Man and Nature, or, Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action 15
Mankind and Civilization at Another Crossroad 100
A Manual of Agricultural Botany 22
Manures: A Prize Essay 10
The Maple Sugar Book, Being a Plain, Practical Account of the Art of Sugaring Designed to Promote an Acquaintance with the Ancient as Well as the Modern Practice, Together with Remarks on Pioneering as a Way of Living in the Twentieth Century 83
Meeting the Expectations of the Land: Essays in Sustainable Agriculture and Stewardship 140
Metal Trace Elements in Agriculture 89
The Mineral Composition of Crops with Particular Reference to the Soils in Which They Were Grown: A Review and Compilation 54
Mineral Nutrition and the Balance of Life 89
Mineral Nutrition of Plants and Animals 89
The Mirage of Safety: Food Additives and Federal Policy 96
Modern Humus Farming 79
Mother Earth News 197
A Muck Manual for Farmers 10
The Mulching of Vegetables 90
Multiple Cropping Systems 147, 190
My Life with the Microbes 46

National Farmers’ Market Directory 112
Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution 115
A Natural Ecology 55
The Natural Foods Primer: Help for the Bewildered Beginner 96
Natural Resource Conservation: Management for a Sustainable Future 191
The Natural Way of Farming: The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy 148
Nature's Ag School: The Thompson Farm 156
The Networker 204
New American Farm Book 11
The New American Farmer: Profiles of Agricultural Innovation 171
New Directions for Agriculture and Agricultural Research: Neglected Dimensions and Emerging Alternatives 118
The New-England Farmer, or, Georgical Dictionary: Containing a Compendious Account of the Ways and Methods in Which the Important Art of Husbandry, in All its Various Branches, is, or May be Practised, to the Greatest Advantage, in this Country 5
The New Jersey Food System: A Harvest of Doubt for the Garden State: Working Draft, a Study of the Food System of New Jersey 131
The New Organic Grower: A Master's Manual of Tools and Techniques for the Home and Market Gardener 161
The New Organic Grower’s Four Season Harvest: How-to Harvest Fresh Organic Vegetables from your Home Garden All Year Long 161
New Pattern for a Tired World 67
New Roots for Agriculture 129
The New York State Food System: Growing Closer to Home, a Study of the Food System of New York State, by Patricia Messing 131
The Next Green Revolution: Essential Steps to a Healthy, Sustainable Agriculture 184
Nitrate Production in Soils as Influenced by Cropping and Soil Treatments 34
Nitrogen Fixation and Soil Fertility Exhaustion by Soybeans under Different Levels of Potassium 34
Nitrogen in the Environment: Sources, Problems, and Management 189
Nutrition and Health, being the Cantor Lectures Delivered before the Royal Society of Arts, 1936, together with two earlier essays, by Sir Robert McCarrison, and a postscript by H. M. Sinclair 45
Nutrition and National Health 45
Nutrition and Physical Degeneration a Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets and Their Effects 50
Nutrition and the Soil, Thoughts on Feeding 76
The Nutrition Debate: Sorting Out Some Answers 119

The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals 192
On Becoming Lovers of the Soil 157
On-farm Research Reports 156
Once and Future Farming: Some Meditations on the Historical and Cultural Roots of Sustainable Agriculture in the United States 200
The One Straw Revolution 148
Oral History Interview with Charles A. Francis 147
Oral History Interview with Dick Thompson 156
Oral History Interview with Dr. James A. Duke 137
Oral History Interview with Fred Kirschenmann 157
Oral History Interview with I. Garth Youngberg 130
Oral History Interview with James Patrick Madden 158
Oral History Interview with Mr. Robert Rodale 103
Oral History Interview with Wes Jackson 129
Oral History Interview with William Lockeretz 108
Organic Agriculture: A Global Perspective 191
Organic Agriculture: Economic and Ecological Comparisons with Conventional Methods 121
Organic Chemistry and its Application to Agriculture and Physiology 9
Organic Crop Production Overview 206
Organic Dairy Farming 174
Organic Farming 165
Organic Farming: Current Technology and its Role in a Sustainable Agriculture 141
Organic Farming Systems 157
Organic Farming: The Origin of the Name 212
The Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) 166
Organic Front 72, 63
Organic Gardening: How to Grow Healthy Vegetables, Fruits, and Flowers Using Nature’s Own Methods 63
Organic Husbandry: A Symposium 73
Organic Method on the Farm 63
The Organic Method Primer: A Practical Explanation the How and Why for the Beginner and the Experienced 211
The Organic Tradition: An Anthology of Writings on Organic Farming 1900-1950 199
The Organic Way to Mulching 103
Organische Chemie in ihrer Anwendung auf Agricultur und Physiologie 9
The Origins of the Organic Movement 198
Our American Land: The Story of its Abuse and its Conservation 39
Our Daily Poison the Effects of DDT, Fluorides, Hormones and Other Chemicals on Modern Man 84
Our Margin of Life 97
Our Plundered Planet 71
Out of the Earth 67
Outgrowing the Earth: The Food Security Challenge in the Age of Falling Water Tables and Rising Temperatures 117
Outline of a Proposed Organic Act of Congress to Prevent Forest Degeneration and Destruction and to Preserve and Rebuild Forest Resources 64

Pastured Poultry Manual: The Polyface Model 186
Pastured Poultry Profits 186
Pay Dirt: Farming and Gardening with Composts 63
Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life, 1840-1940 25
The Pennsylvania Food System: Crash or Self-reliance? A Study of the Food System of Pennsylvania 131
Permaculture 1: A Perennial Agricultural System for Human Settlements 120
Permaculture: A Designers’ Manual 120
Permaculture Two: Practical Design for Town and Country in Permanent Agriculture 120
Pflanzenkunde für Mittlere und Niedere Landwirthschaftschülen 22
Plant Succession in Relation to Range Management 31
Plants in the Service of Man 10,000 Years of Domestication 80
Pleasant Valley 67
Ploughing in Prejudices 59
Plowman's Folly 59
The Policy and Regulatory Environment for Organic Farming in Europe: Country Reports 165
Potential Cropland Study 114
The Potential of Agroecology to Combat Hunger in the Developing World 135
Pottenger's Cats: A Study in Nutrition 42
The Power Monopoly: Its Make-up and its Menace 26
The Power of Duck: Integrated Rice and Duck Farming 183
Practical Farming for the South 59
Practical Guide to the Use of the Bio-dynamic Preparations 47
Practical Organic Gardening 86
Precis Scientifique et Pratique de Culture Biologique: Methode Lemaire-Boucher 98
Precision Agriculture and Environmental Quality: Challenges for Research and Education 189
The Prevention System for Better Health, with Robert Rodale 63
Principles of Soil Microbiology 46
Problems in Tree Nutrition 62
Proceedings of the 1st International Institute of Biological Husbandry Symposium 133
Proceedings of Workshops on Resource-Efficient Farming Methods for Tanzania, May 16-20, 1983 201
The Production and Care of Farm Manures 20
Productivité de l'Herbe 91
Promise or Threat? Responding to the Challenge of Agricultural Biotechnology 194
Public Values, Private Lands: Origins and Ironies of the Farmland Preservation in Congress 207

Radical Agriculture 111
Range and Pasture Management 31
Range Improvement by Deferred and Rotation Grazing 31
Range Management: Principles and Practices 31
Range Preservation and its Relation to Erosion Control on Western Grazing Lands 31
Rangeland Health: New Methods to Classify, Inventory, and Monitor Rangelands 173
The Rape of the Earth: A World Survey of Soil Erosion 49
Rational Grazing: The Meeting of Cow and Grass a Manual of Grass Productivity, with Antoine Lecomte 91
Readings in Goethean Science 36
Recognising Health 56
Reconstruction by Way of the Soil 66
Regenerating Agriculture: Policies and Practice for Sustainability and Self-reliance 175
Regenerating the Food System: A Food and Agricultural Policy for the United States a Framework for Discussion 131
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 203
Report and Recommendations on Organic Farming 130
Report of the U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture for the Year 1864 16
Report on the Commission on Country Life 30
A Report upon the Grasses and Forage Plants of Central Texas 21
Reproduction and Animal Health 128
Research Agenda for the Transition to a Regenerative Food System 147, 158
Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR 147
Reseeding of Depleted Grazing Lands to Cultivated Forage Plants 31
The River of the Mother of God and Other Essays 75
Rivers for Life: Managing Water for People and Nature 143
The Road Back to Nature: Regaining the Paradise Lost 148
The Rocky Mountain Locust: Its Metamorphoses and Natural Enemies 17
Rodale Guide to Composting 126
Round River From the Journals of Aldo Leopold 75
Russian Comfrey: A Hundred Tons an Acre of Stock Feed or Compost for Farm, Garden or Smallholding 93
The Ruth Stout No-work Garden Book 87
Récherches Chimiques sur la Végétation 6

A Safe and Sustainable World: The Promise of Ecological Design 144
Salad Bar Beef 186
A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There 75
Save Three Lives: A Plan for Famine Prevention 103
The Sea Around Us 94
Searching for the “O-word”: Analyzing the USDA Current Research Information System for Pertinence to Organic Farming 178
A Second Look 59
Seeds of Change: Food and Agriculture Policy for Oklahoma’s Future 184
A Sense of Soil: Agricultural Conservation and American Culture 213
Sharing the Harvest: A Guide to Community Supported Agriculture 160
Silent Spring 94
Sir Albert Howard in India 68
Slow Food: Collected Thoughts on Taste, Tradition, and the Honest Pleasures of Food 185
Slow Food Nation: A Blueprint for Changing the Way We Eat 185
Slow Food Revolution: A New Culture for Eating and Living 185
Slow Food: The Case for Taste 185
Small Farm Development: Understanding and Improving Farming Systems in the Humid Tropics 147
Small Harms Destructive to the Country in its Present Situation 4
Small is Beautiful Economics as if People Mattered 106
Small Is Profitable: The Hidden Economic Benefits of Making Electrical Resources the Right Size 115
Small-scale Grain Raising 102
So Great a Vision: The Conservation Writings of George Perkins Marsh 15
Social and Labor Needs of Farm Women 33
The Social Impact of the Green Revolution 117
The Socioeconomics of Sustainable Agriculture: An Annotated Bibliography 169
Soft Energy Paths: Toward a Durable Peace 115
Soil 49
Soil and Civilization 80
Soil and Health: A Study of Organic Agriculture 52
Soil and Sense 55
The Soil: Assessment, Analysis and Utilisation in Organic Agriculture 165
Soil Conservation 39
Soil-depleting, Soil-conserving, and Soil-building Crops 38
Soil Depletion in Respect to the Care of Fruit Trees 20
Soil Erosion: A National Menace 39
Soil Erosion: Crisis in America’s Croplands? 136
Soil Fertility 99
Soil Fertility and Animal Health 34
Soil Fertility and Permanent Agriculture 28
Soil Fertility in Sustainable Low Input Farming 110
Soil, Food and Health in a Changing World 56
Soil, Forest, and Water Conservation and Reclamation in China, Israel, Africa, and the United States an Interview Conducted by Malca Chall 69
Soil, Grass, and Cancer: Health of Animals and Men is Linked to the Mineral Balance of the Soil 91
The Soil: Its Nature, Relations, and Fundamental Principles of Management 29
Soil Microbiology 46
Soil Microorganisms and Higher Plants 92
Soil Organic Matter and the Living Plant 46
The Soil Resource: Origin and Behavior 41
Soil Restoration 59
Soils and Men: The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1938 48
Soils: How to Handle and Improve Them 25
Soils, their Formation, Properties, and Relations to Climate and Plant Growth in the Humid and Arid Regions 23
The South Carolina Food System: Does it Have a Future? A Study of the South Carolina Food System 131
State of the States: Organic Systems Research at Land Grant Institutions, 2001-2003 178
State of the World: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society 145
The State of Your Food: A Manual for State Food Systems Analysis 131
Stone Mulching in the Garden 63
The Story of Soil 28
The Strawberry in North America: History, Origin, Botany, and Breeding 25
Studies in Deficiency Disease 45
A Study on the Influence of Climate upon the Nitrogen and Organic Matter Content of the Soil 41
Sustainable Agricultural Systems 163, 202
Sustainable Agriculture and Integrated Farming Systems: 1984 Conference Proceedings 146
Sustainable Agriculture: Current State and Future Trajectory 190
Sustainable Agriculture in Temperate Zones 147, 190
Sustainable Agriculture in the Midwest: North Central Regional Conference 147, 190
Sustainable Agriculture Systems 189
Sustainable Capitalism: A Matter of Common Sense 171
Sustainable Food Systems 138
Sustainable Horticulture: Today and Tomorrow 190
Sustainable Production of Fresh-Market Tomatoes and Other Summer Vegetables with Organic Mulches 177
The Sustainable Vegetable Garden: A Backyard Guide to Healthy Soil and Higher Yields 107
Switching to a Sustainable System: Strategies for Converting from Conventional 157
Sylva Americana or a Description of the Forest Trees Indigenous to the United States 12

Ten Acres Enough A Practical Experience Showing How a Very Small Farm May be Made to Keep a Very Large Family, with Edmund Morris 20
Ten Essential Reasons to Protect the Birds and the Bees: How an Impending Pollination Crisis Threatens Plants and the Food on Your Table 149
Think about Land 106
The Third Annual True Seed Exchange 124
This Farming Business 79
This Organic Life: Confessions of a Suburban Homesteader 119
Thomas Jefferson, Soil Conservationist 39
Thoughts on Feeding 76
Threshold Generic Design Conference 144
A Time to Act: A Report of the USDA National Commission on Small Farms 180
Toward a More Sustainable Agriculture 190
Towards a Sustainable Agriculture 116
Towards a Sustainable Agriculture - The Living Soil 58
The Trash Farmer: Edward Faulkner and the Origins of Sustainable Agriculture in the United States, 1943-1953 195
A Treatise on Agriculture 4
Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture 40
Trees and Toadstools 62
Tropical Grazing Lands: Communities and Constituent Species 49
The Twenty-ninth Day: Accommodating Human Needs and Numbers to the Earth's Resources 117
Two Acre Eden 102

Une Veritable Agriculture Biologique 98
Uneasy Money 59
The Unsettling of America: Culture and Agriculture 113
Unwelcome Harvest: Agriculture and Pollution 175
Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities 176
The Utilization of Our Lands for Crops, Pasture and Forests 35

Vanishing Lands a World Survey of Soil Erosion. 49
Vetiver Grass: A Thin Green Line Against Erosion 100
The Village as Solar Ecology: Proceedings of the New Alchemy 144
Visions of American Agriculture 108

Walden or, Life in the Woods 13
Water and the Cycle of Life 77
Water for Agriculture: Facing the Limits 143
Water for Every Farm 85
Water Resources, Agriculture and the Environment 127
Water: Rethinking Management in an Age of Scarcity 143
The Way of the Land 44
Wealth of the Soil 67
Weeds and What They Tell 47
Weeds: Control without Poisons 128
Weeds: Guardians of the Soil 77
What are People For? Essays 113
What Can We Do, a Food, Land, Hunger Action Guide 101
What is Bio-dynamic Agriculture? 110
What is Biodynamics? A Way to Heal and Revitalize the Earth: Seven Lectures 36
Wheat in the Third World 100
The Wheel of Life: A Study of Very Healthy People 66
Who will Feed China? Wake-up Call for a Small Planet 117
Winning the Oil Endgame: Innovation for Profit, Jobs and Security 115
The Winter-harvest Manual: Farming the Back Side of the Calendar: Commercial Greenhouse Production of Fresh Vegetables in Cold-winter Climates without Supplementary Heat 161
The Work of Sir Robert McCarrison 45
World Food, Pest Losses, and the Environment 127

You Can Farm: The Entrepreneur’s Guide to Start and Succeed in a Farm Enterprise 186


1900-1944

The rise of “scientific agriculture” and adoption of manufactured chemical fertilizers and pesticides

In the years after Liebig’s revelations about soil chemistry and plant nutrition (see: Liebig, 1840), most farmers and agricultural researchers adopted chemically-oriented soil and crop management techniques that they saw as more scientific than traditional practices. The large-scale use of synthetic fertilizers came slowly, but surely. It was coupled, in the years following World War I and World War II, with the use of newly developed chemicals that were used to control insect pests and weeds.

Simultaneously, this shift to chemically- and technologically-intensive farming was accompanied by attitudinal and scientific changes that helped shape modern organic and sustainable agriculture. These included: the study and acceptance of “biological control” techniques renewed interest in the role of humus and soil microorganisms in plant production and innovative approaches to composting. There were also many scientific discoveries concerning human nutrition and the relationship among agricultural practices, food and human diseases.

During this period Americans were confronted with evidence of deteriorated of rangelands, soils and forests. The first critics of the new “industrial” agriculture emerged and a heightened conservation ethic began to take root. The New Zealand Soil and Health Association (originally called the “Humic Compost Club") was founded in 1942, pre-dating both the British Soil Association (1946) and Rodale’s Soil and Health Foundation (1947).

1906
Hilgard, Eugene Woldemar, 1833-1916
Soils, their Formation, Properties, and Relations to Climate and Plant Growth in the Humid and Arid Regions
New York: Macmillian, 1906. 593p. Includes index. List of authors referred to in text.
NAL Call no: 56 H54S
Full-text: Core Historical Literature of Agriculture, Cornell University, http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chlaidno=2845620 (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
This author published many other works on agricultural topics under the auspices of the Berkeley CA Agricultural Experiment Station including: The “Bedrock Lands” of Sacramento County, with R.H. Loughridge (1885) The Distribution of the Salts in Alkali Soils, with R.H. Loughridge (1895) The Conservation of Soil Moisture and Economy in the Use of Irrigation Water, with R.H. Loughridge (1898).
Annotation: Professor of Agriculture at the University of California and Director of the California Experiment Station, Hilgard originally planned this to be a text and reference book, but enlarged its scope to include his soil studies “in the humid and arid regions.” JPG
Cited in: Merrill (1983) Pieters (1927)

1907
Elliot, Robert Henry, 1837-1914
The Clifton Park System of Farming and Laying Down Land to Grass
London: Simpkin, et.al., 1907. 260p. Includes index. First published in 1898 as Agricultural Changes. Introduction by Sir George Stapledon.
NAL Call no: 32 E152 (not listed in catalog, 1/2007)
Full-text: (5th edition) Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon and Journey to Forever Online Library, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library.html (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Annotation: The author writes of his more than 30 years’ experience in India and in England as a planter and a farmer. He quotes Cato, devotes considerable space to Arthur Young and remarks that proposals to agricultural changes are often met with a response characterized as “What we knows we knows, and what we don’t know we don’t want to know.” JPG
Cited in: Coleman (1976) Conford (1988) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990)

1907
Fletcher, Stevenson Whitcomb, 1875-1971
Soils: How to Handle and Improve Them
New York: Doubleday, Page, 1907. 438p. Includes index. Appendix (includes crop rotation recommendations by state). Illustrated with photographs by the author. (The Farm Library)
NAL Call no: 56.7 F632
Full-text: Core Historical Literature of Agriculture, Cornell University, http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chlaidno=2716150 (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: The Strawberry in North America: History, Origin, Botany, and Breeding (1917) Pennsylvania Agriculture and Country Life, 1840-1940 (1955).
Annotation: Fletcher, then at the Agricultural College of Michigan, attempts here to “set forth the important facts about the soil in a plain and non-technical manner.” JPG
Cited in: Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990)

1908
Pinchot, Gifford, 1865-1946
The Conservation of Natural Resources
Washington DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1908. 12p. (Farmers’ Bulletin, 327)
NAL Call no: 1 Ag84F no.327
Full-text: Organic Roots, Organic Agriculture Information Access, https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/organic_roots
Other works by this author: The Fight for Conservation (1910) The Power Monopoly: Its Make-up and its Menace (1928) Breaking New Ground.(1947) The Conservation Diaries of Gifford Pinchot, edited by Harold K. Steen (2001).
Annotation: “We shall decide whether their [our children] lives, on the average, are to be lived in a flourishing country, full of all that helps to make men comfortable, happy, and strong, and effective, or whether their lives are to be lived in a country like the miserable outworn regions of the earth which other nations before us have possessed without foresight and turned in to hopeless deserts. We are no more exempt from the operation of natural laws than are the people of any other part of the world.” p. 12. Pinchot addresses not only the status and future of forest and soil resources in the United States, but “Waste through piecemeal planning” and the “Danger of monopoly.” MVG

1910
Carver, George Washington, 1864?-1943
George Washington Carver in his Own Words
Columbia MO: University of Missouri Press, 1987. xv, 208p. Edited by Gary R. Kremer. Includes index. Bibliography, p. 197-205.
NAL Call no: S417.C3C3
Annotation: Lacking funds for research at Tuskegee Institute, Carver worked on improving soils, growing crops with few inputs and using species that fixed nitrogen (hence, the work on the cowpea and the peanut). He emphasized providing information that farmers needed, presented at the level they could use. “This pegs him as one of the first true sustainable agriculture educators and researchers.” Dennis Keeney, in Leopold Letter, Fall 1998 MVG

1910
Hopkins, Cyril George, 1866-1919
Soil Fertility and Permanent Agriculture
Boston: Ginn, 1910. 653p. Includes index. Appendix. See also: History, and Present Position of the Rothamsted Investigations, by Sir J. Henry Gilbert (Harrison, 1891) (full-text: Internet Archive, http://www.archive.org/details/historypresentpo00gilbuoft ) (accessed Apr. 23, 2007). (Country Life Education Series)
NAL Call no: 56.6 H77
Full-text: Core Historical Literature of Agriculture, Cornell University, http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chlaidno=3057996 (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: The Story of Soil (1910) (full-text: Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html ) (accessed Apr. 23, 2007) The Farm that Won’t Wear Out (1913) (full-text: Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html ) (accessed Apr. 23, 2007).
Annotation: This book contains chapters on “Theories concerning soil fertility” and on the Rothamsted Experiments. The final chapter is titled “Two Periods in Agricultural History” and contains quotations from Varro (B.C.226 to 28) to Liebig and Lincoln (1859) to King (1910). JPG
Cited in: Beeman (1993) Merrill (1983) quoted in King (1911)

1911
King, Franklin Hiram, 1848-1911
Farmers of Forty Centuries (or) Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea, and Japan
Madison WI: Mrs. F. H. King, 1911. 379p. Includes index. 209 illustrations. Preface by L.H. Bailey. Other editions: 2nd edition, edited by J.P. Bruce, London, 1927.
NAL Call no: 34.5 K58
Full-text: Core Historical Literature of Agriculture, Cornell University, http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chlaidno=2917542 (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: Destructive Effects of Winds on Sandy Soils and Light Sandy Loams: With Methods of Protection (1894) The Soil: Its Nature, Relations, and Fundamental Principles of Management (1895) Irrigation and Drainage: Principles and Practice of their Cultural Phases (1899).
Annotation: King, a chief of the USDA Division of Soil Management, wrote this book after his retirement but did not live to write a final chapter. Bailey calls it the “writing of a well-trained observer who went to study the actual conditions of life of agricultural peoples.” It is one of the most influential of all the works cited, with far-reaching consequences for agricultural practices worldwide. JPG
Cited in: Beeman (1993) Coleman (1976) Conford (2001) Esbjornson (1992) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990) Heckman (2006) Kirschenmann (2004) Korcak (1992) Merrill (1983) Pieters (1927)

1911
United States Country Life Commission
Report on the Commission on Country Life
New York: Sturgis and Walton, 1911. 150p. Report first printed as 60th Congress, 2nd session, Senate document 705 (1909). Introduction by Theodore Roosevelt. Commission members: L.H. Bailey, Henry Wallace, Kenyon L. Butterfield, Walter H. Page, Gifford Pinchot, C.S. Barrett and W.A Beard. Other editions: Reprint published by Arno, 1975.
NAL Call no: 281.2 Un32 1911
Full-text: Core Historical Literature of Agriculture, Cornell University (1909 edition), http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chlaidno=3319041 (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Annotation: Healthy rural economies and communities are key components of a sustainable agriculture. This report, commissioned by Theodore Roosevelt, describes “corrective forces” that should be implemented to address “deficiencies in country life” including disregard for farmer and farm laborer rights, land speculation, waste in forests, soil depletion, transportation, health, women’s work and trade restraints. “We were founded as a nation of farmers and in spite of the great growth of our industrial life it still remains true that our whole system rests upon the farm, that the welfare of the whole community depends on the farmer. The strengthening of country life is the strengthening of the whole nation.” Introduction, T. Roosevelt. MVG

1913
Sampson, Arthur William, 1884-1967
Range Improvement by Deferred and Rotation Grazing
Washington DC: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 16p. (Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. No. 34)
NAL Call no: 1 Ag84B no.34
Other works by this author: Reseeding of Depleted Grazing Lands to Cultivated Forage Plants (1913) Range Preservation and its Relation to Erosion Control on Western Grazing Lands, with Leon H. Weyl (1918) Climate and Plant Growth in Certain Vegetative Associations (1918) (full-text: Internet Archive, http://www.archive.org/details/climateplantgrow00samprich ) (accessed Apr. 1, 2007) Plant Succession in Relation to Range Management (1919) Range and Pasture Management (1923) Grazing Periods and Forage Production on the National Forests, with Harry E. Malmsten (1926) Range Management: Principles and Practices (1952).
Annotation: “Arthur William Sampson’s list of ‘firsts’ is impressive: first person in America to be called a range ecologist, first to promote deferred and rotational grazing strategies, first to develop usable concepts of indicator species and plant succession for evaluating range condition, first to write a college text on range management, first range ecologist hired by the Forest Service, and first director of what is now called the Intermountain Research Station.” Utah History to Go ( http://historytogo.utah.gov/people/utahns_of_achievement/arthurwilliamsampson.html ) (accessed Apr. 1, 2007) MVG

1915
Bailey, Liberty Hyde, 1858-1954
The Holy Earth
New York: Scribner’s, 1915. 117p.
NAL Call no: 30.4 B15
Full-text: Library of Congress, American Memory, The Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/amrvhtml/conshome.html (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: Cyclopedia of American Agriculture: A Popular Survey of Agricultural Conditions, Practices and Ideals in the United States and Canada (4-volumes, 1907-1909) (full-text: Core Historical Literature of Agriculture Library, http://chla.library.cornell.edu/c/chla/browse/title/2949859.html ) (accessed Apr. 23, 2007).
Annotation: “Dean” Bailey, who wrote many textbooks in fields relating to agriculture and who published one volume of verse, writes here on a simple “philosophy of rural life.” JPG
Cited in: Kirschenmann (2004) Merrill (1983) quoted in Bromfield (1947)

1915
United States Department of Agriculture
Social and Labor Needs of Farm Women
Washington DC: United States Department of Agriculture, 1915. (Report, 103)
NAL Call no: 1Ag848p no.103
Full-text: History Matters, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/101/ (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Related USDA reports: Domestic Needs of Farm Women, Report 104 (1915) Educational Needs of Farm Women, Report 105 (1915) Economic Needs of Farm Women, Report 106 (1915).
Annotation: This pioneering report, based on excerpts of letters from farm wives, provided important insights into farm and rural life, and the roles of men and women, that had not been studied before. It was published with three accompanying reports, cited above. MVG

1919
Albrecht, William Albert, 1888-1974
The Albrecht Papers
Kansas City MO: Acres U.S.A., 1982. 2 vols. Edited by Charles Walters Jr. Contains

70 papers in 2 volumes: v. 1. Foundation concepts v. 2. Soil fertility and animal health. Includes indexes and Albrecht Bibliography, p. 3-37.
NAL Call no: S441.A44 1982
Full-text: Several papers as well as a collection of journal and magazine articles, experiment station and other government publications, are available at the Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: Artificial Manure Production on the Farm (1927) Legume Bacteria with Reference to Light and Longevity, with Lloyd M. Turk (1929) Nitrate Production in Soils as Influenced by Cropping and Soil Treatments (1938) Nitrogen Fixation and Soil Fertility Exhaustion by Soybeans under Different Levels of Potassium, with Carl E. Ferguson (1941) Soil Fertility and Animal Health (1958).
Annotation: Dr. Albrecht’s observations, research and teaching on soil and soil’s relationship to plant, animal and human nutrition reflect the essence of sustainable soil management. A professor at the University of Missouri College of Agriculture, Albrecht wrote hundreds of reports, books and articles that span several decades, starting with his reports on nitrogen fixation and soil inoculation in 1919. MVG
Cited in: Coleman (1976) Merrill (1983)

1923
Gray, L. C., O. E. Baker, F. J. Marschner, B. O. Weitz, William Ridgely Chapline, Ward Shepard and Raphael Zon
The Utilization of Our Lands for Crops, Pasture and Forests
In Agriculture Yearbook, 1923. Washington DC: United States Department of Agriculture Government Printing Office (1923), p. 415-506.
NAL Call no: 1 Ag844 1923
Full-text: National Agricultural Library Digital Repository (NALDR), http://naldr.nal.usda.gov/NALWeb/Publications.aspx (select “Yearbook. ” then search by author name and 1923) (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Annotation: This article reflects the government’s views as to the “present situation and future outlook” regarding available resources for the growing of food and raw materials which must be supplied by crop lands, pastures and forests. As such, it is both a summary and an estimate. JPG
Cited in: Pieters (1927)

1924
Steiner, Rudolf, 1861-1925
Agriculture: A Course of Eight Lectures
London: Bio-Dynamic Agricultural Association, Rudolf Steiner House, 1974 (oldest edition held by the National Agricultural Library). 175p. Translated from the German, Geisteswissenschaftliche Grundlagen zum Gedeihen der Landwirtschaft (1924), by George Adams. Preface by Ehrenfried Pfeiffer.
NAL Call no: S523.S8313 1974
Other works by this author: Readings in Goethean Science, with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1978) What is Biodynamics? A Way to Heal and Revitalize the Earth: Seven Lectures (2005).
Annotation: This is the text which is based on the series of lectures Steiner gave in Koberwitz, Silesia in 1924. The lecture series marked the beginning of the biodynamic agriculture movement. JPG. [The biodynamic farm/food certification organization, Demeter, was also initiated in the 1920s. MVG]
Cited in: Conford (2001) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990) Heckman (2006) Kirschenmann (2004) Scofield (1986)

1927
Elton, Charles Sutherland, 1900-1991
Animal Ecology
London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1927. 207p. Introduction by Julian S. Huxley. List of references, p.192-200. Other editions: 3rd edition, 1950.
NAL Call no: 411 E18
Other works by this author: Animal Ecology and Evolution (1930) The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants (1958).
Annotation: Elton helped define the field of ecology by focusing on the study of animal populations as opposed to studying individual organisms or the more general “scientific natural history.” His approach, along with refinements established by Amyan Macfadyen (Animal Ecology: Aims and Methods, 1957) and others in the 1950s, laid the groundwork for “agroecology.” MVG. See also: Altieri, 1983 and Gliessman, 1998.

1927
Pieters, Adrian John, 1866-1950
Green Manuring: Principles and Practice
New York: Wiley, 1927. xiv, 356p. Includes index. Bibliography. (The Wiley Agricultural Series)
NAL Call no: 57.5 P61
Full-text: Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: Green Manuring, with C.V. Piper (USDA Farmers’ Bulletin, no. 1250, 1922) Soil-depleting, Soil-conserving, and Soil-building Crops (USDA Leaflet, no. 165, 1938) Legumes in Soil Conservation Practices (USDA Leaflet, no. 163, 1938).
Annotation: Pieters was an agronomist working for the USDA at the time he wrote this book, defining “green manuring,” and cover, catch and shade crops. The second chapter, a history of the subject, covers China and Japan, Greece and Rome, through the Middle Ages to England and America in the 19th Century. JPG
Cited in: Korcak (1992) Waksman (1936)

1928
Bennett, Hugh Hammond, 1881-1960 and William Ridgely Chapline
Soil Erosion: A National Menace
Washington DC: United States Department of Agriculture, 1928. 36p. 16 plates of photographs. Bibliography, p. 35-36. (Circular, 33)
NAL Call no: 1 Ag84C no.33
Full-text: Organic Roots, Organic Agriculture Information Access, https://organicroots.nal.usda.gov/orc/home.xhtml (to be added June, 2007) (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: Conservation Farming Practices and Flood Control (1936) Soil Conservation (1939) Thomas Jefferson, Soil Conservationist (1944) Our American Land: The Story of its Abuse and its Conservation (1946) Elements of Soil Conservation (1947).
Annotation: “Hugh Hammond Bennett led the soil conservation movement in the United States in the 1920s and 1930s, urged the nation to address the ‘national menace’ of soil erosion and created a new federal agency and served as its first chief - the Soil Conservation Service, now the Natural Resources Conservation Service [NRCS] in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He is considered today to be the father of soil conservation.” A Story of Land and People: Biography of Hugh Hammond Bennett, USDA , NRCS ( http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/about/history/bennett.html ) (accessed February 1, 2007). MVG
Cited in: Beeman (1993) Worster (1985)

1929
Smith, Joseph Russell, 1874-1966
Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture
New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1929. xii, 333p. “List of articles in which the tree crops idea has been broadcasted,” p. 295. “Bibliography on soil erosion and its prevention,” p. 296-301. Other editions: 1950 edition (Devon-Adair) includes an introduction by Wendell Berry.
NAL Call no: 99 Sm6 1929
Full-text: Journey to Forever Online Library (selected chapters only), http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library.html (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Annotation: Smith’s compilation of important trees and how to grow them was written to promote remedies for worn out soils, soil erosion on hillsides, flooding and degradation of arid lands. “Testing applied to the plant kingdom would show that the natural engines of food production for hill lands are not corn and other grasses, but trees.” Part I: “The Philosophy, Tree Crops - The Way Out.” MVG

1930
Jenny, Hans, 1899-1992
A Study on the Influence of Climate upon the Nitrogen and Organic Matter Content of the Soil
Columbia MO: University of Missouri, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1930. 66p. Bibliography, p. 64-66. (Research Bulletin, 152)
NAL Call no: 100 M693 (3) no.152
Other works by this author: Factors of Soil Formation: A System of Quantitative Pedology (1941, reprinted 1994) (full-text: Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html ) (accessed Apr. 23, 2007) The Soil Resource: Origin and Behavior (1980).
Annotation: Jenny’s work, first at the University of Missouri (Columbia) and later at the University of California, Berkeley, focused on defining soil properties and the process of soil formation. His research on the effect of natural influences - climate, organisms, topography, time and parent material - on soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics was very influential during the mid-1900s and seems particularly relevant today, MVG
Cited in: Worster (1985)

1932
Pottenger, Francis Marion, 1901-1967
Pottenger’s Cats: A Study in Nutrition
La Mesa CA: Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, 1995 (oldest edition held by the National Agricultural Library). xv, 123p. Bibliography: “The professional papers of Francis M. Pottenger, Jr., M.D.,” p. 121-123. Edited by Elaine Pottenger with Robert T. Pottenger, Jr.
NAL Call no: TX537 .P67 1995
Annotation: This compilation presents the observations made by Francis M. Pottenger, Jr., M.D., on the effects of deficient and optimum nutrition in cats and human beings as recorded in his articles and clinical records written between the years of 1932 and 1956. Pottenger’s work focused on the nutritive value of heat-labile elements - nutrients destroyed by heat and available only in raw foods. He linked his observations of cats on deficient diets to Dr. Weston Price’s studies (see Price, 1939) of human degeneration found in tribes and villages that had abandoned traditional foods. MVG
Cited in: Merrill (1983)

1935
Sears, Paul Bigelow, 1891-1990
Deserts on the March
Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1935. 231p. Most recent edition: 4th edition, University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.
NAL Call no: 277.12 Se1
Other works by this author: Life and Environment (1939) Biology of the Living Landscape (1964) Lands Beyond the Forest (1969).
Annotation: In 1935, drought held sway over much of the United States and the Dust Bowl was at its worst. With an ecological approach, Sears writes eloquently about desertification, a problem that remains one of the primary challenges facing sustainability of agriculture world-wide. MVG
Cited in: Conford (2001)

1935
Stapledon, Sir Reginald George, 1882-1960
The Land Now and Tomorrow
London: Faber and Faber, 1935. xvii, 336p. Includes foldout maps. Bibliography, p. 316-325.
NAL Call no: 282 St2
Other works by this author: The Cultivation and Varieties of Oats (1923) Ley Farming, with W. Davies (1941) (full-text, 1948 edition: Journey to Forever Online Library, http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library.html ) (accessed Apr. 23, 2007) The Way of the Land (1949) (full-text: Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html ) (accessed Apr. 23, 2007).
Annotation: Stapledon, Professor of Agricultural Botany at University College of Wales Aberystwyth, founded the Welsh Plant Breeding Station in 1919. He was concerned with ley farming and improvement of grass plants. MVG
Cited in: Conford (2001)

1936
McCarrison, Sir Robert, 1878-1960
Nutrition and Health, being the Cantor Lectures Delivered before the Royal Society of Arts, 1936, together with two earlier essays, by Sir Robert McCarrison, and a postscript by H. M. Sinclair
London: Faber and Faber, 1953 (oldest edition held by the National Agricultural Library). 125p. Published in 1936 under title: Nutrition and National Health. (Royal Society of Arts, London, Cantor Lectures)
NAL Call no: 389.1 M125N 1953
Full-text: (McCarrison lectures only) McCarrison Society Scottish Group, http://www.foodforhealthscotland.org/nutritionandnationalhealth.html (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: Studies in Deficiency Disease (1921) (full-text: Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html ) (accessed Apr. 23, 2007) The Work of Sir Robert McCarrison, edited by H.M. Sinclair (1953).
Annotation: Dr. McCarrison spent most his career in the Indian Medical Service. Through his studies in India and Britain, dating from the 1930s, he concluded that the relationship of food to nutrition and of both to health and disease was the key to maintaining good “national health.” MVG
Cited in: Conford (1988) Conford (2001) Merrill (1983)

1936
Waksman, Selman Abraham, 1888-1973
Humus: Origin, Chemical Composition, and Importance in Nature
Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1936. 526p. Subject and author indexes. Extensive bibliography.
NAL Call no: 56 W13H
Full-text: Core Historical Literature of Agriculture, Cornell University, http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chlaidno=2828925 (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: Principles of Soil Microbiology (1927) Soil Microbiology (1952) Soil Organic Matter and the Living Plant, with A.W. Blair (1938) Guide to the Classification and Identification of the Actinomycetes and their Antibiotics, with Hubert A. Lechevalier (1953) My Life with the Microbes (1954).
Annotation: An “attempt to tell the story of humus, its origin from plant and animal residues, its chemical composition, its physical properties, its importance in nature, especially in soil processes and in plant growth and finally its decomposition.” JPG
Cited in: Balfour (1943) Beeman (1993) Blum (1993) Coleman (1976) Conford (2001) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990) Korcak (1992) Merrill (1983) author cited extensively by Pfeiffer

1938
Pfeiffer, Ehrenfried, 1899-1961
Bio-dynamic Farming and Gardening: Soil Fertility Renewal and Preservation
New York London: Anthroposophic Press Rudoff Steiner Pub. Co., 1938. vii, 2 leaves, 220p. Translated from the German, Die Fruchtbarkeit der Erde (1937), by Fred Heckel. Bibliography, p. 217-220. 18 illustrations.
NAL Call no: 30 P47
Full-text: (American edition) Core Historical Literature of Agriculture, Cornell University, http://chla.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=chlaidno=3138977 (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: Practical Guide to the Use of the Bio-dynamic Preparations (revised edition, 1945) The Earth’s Face and Human Destiny (1947) The Compost Manufacturers Manual the Practice of Large Scale Composting (1956) Weeds and What They Tell (reprint, 1981).
Annotation: Based on Steiner’s approach, this book stresses the importance of the “life process (biological process),” with the farm or garden a biological organic unit, not a series of unconnected processes. JPG
Cited in: Coleman (1976) Conford (2001) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990) Merrill (1983)

1938
United States Department of Agriculture
Soils and Men: The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1938
Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1938. 1232p. Includes index. Glossary. Literature cited.
NAL Call no: 1 AG844 1938
Annotation: More than 100 authors contributed to this yearbook, including William A. Albrecht, then Professor of Soils at the University of Missouri and one of the fathers of the ecological agricultural movement. It represents an effort to see “the subject as a whole - scientific aspects, practical aspects, social and economic aspects the needs of individuals, groups and the Nation.” JPG
Cited in: Blum (1993) Conford (2001) Merrill (1983)

1939
Jacks, Graham Vernon, 1901-1977 and Robert Orr Whyte, 1903-1986
The Rape of the Earth: A World Survey of Soil Erosion
London: Faber and Faber, 1939. 313p. Includes index. 47 illustrations. Published in America under the title Vanishing Lands a World Survey of Soil Erosion.
NAL Call no: 56.7 J13
Other works by Jacks: Soil (1954). Other works by Whyte: Crop Production and Environment (1946 revised, 1960) Land, Livestock and Human Nutrition in India (1968) Tropical Grazing Lands: Communities and Constituent Species (1974).
Annotation: Frequently cited, this book is a pioneering classic on the subject. JPG
Cited in: Balfour (1943) Conford (1988) Conford (2001) Howard (1940) Merrill (1983) Northbourne (1940) Scofield (1986)

1939
Price, Weston Andrew, 1870-1948
Nutrition and Physical Degeneration a Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets and Their Effects
New York London: P. B. Hoeber, 1940 (oldest edition held by the National Agricultural Library). xviii, 431p. Foreword by Earnest Albert Hooton. References at end of some of the chapters. Includes 134 figures (primarily photographs taken by the author). Other editions: A 50th anniversary edition, 1989, includes forewords from the original editions by Earnest Albert Hooton, Granville Frank Knight, M.D., William A. Albrecht, Ph.D., and new introductions and reminiscences specially written for the Golden Anniversary Edition by Abram Hoffer, M.D., Ph.D., H. Leon Abrams, Jr. and Donald Delmage Fawcett.
NAL Call no: 389.1 P93
Full-text: Journey to Forever Online Library, http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library.html (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Annotation: A practicing dentist, Price set out to discover why certain “primitive” peoples exhibited perfect teeth while the majority of individuals from modern societies had such poor ones. His travels and work of the 1920s and 1930s produced broad nutritional studies that linked many of modern society’s health problems to diet and to how modern food is grown and prepared. MVG
Cited in: Conford (2001) Merrill (1983)

1940
Bruce, Maye Emily, 1879-
From Vegetable Waste to Fertile Soil (Quick Return Compost)
London: C.A. Pearson, 1940. 64p. Bibliography, p. 63. Foreword by L.F. Easterbrook.
NAL Call no: 57.4 B83
Other works by this author: Common-sense Compost Making by the Quick Return Method (1946) (full-text: Journey to Forever Online Library, http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library.html ) (accessed Apr. 23, 2007) Compost Making: Practical Advice on Nature’s Method of Restoring Life in the Soil (1947).
Annotation: Bruce was a composting pioneer, along with Sir Albert Howard. Both became founding members of the Soil Association in England. MVG
Cited in: Coleman (1976) Conford (2001) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990)

1940
Howard, Sir Albert, 1873-1947
An Agricultural Testament
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1940. 253p. Includes index. Literature. Bibliographies at ends of chapters.
NAL Call no: 56.6 H83A
Full-text: Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon and Journey to Forever Online Library, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library.html (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: Soil and Health: A Study of Organic Agriculture (1947).
Annotation: This is the classic study on soil fertility by the “father of the movement.” It includes the “Agriculture of the Nations Which Have Passed Away” and observations of agricultural practices of both the Orient and the Occident. JPG
Cited in: Balfour (1943) Blum (1993) Coleman (1976) Conford (1988) Conford (2001) Esbjornson (1992) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990) Heckman (2006) Kirschenmann (2004) Korcak (1992) Kuepper, Gegner (2004) Merrill (1983) Northbourne (1940) Scofield (1986)

1940
Northbourne, Walter Ernest Christopher James Lord Baron, 1896-1982
Look to the Land
London: Dent, 1940. 206p. Includes index. Bibliography.
NAL Call no: 30 N81
Other works by this author: Religion in the Modern World (1963) Looking Back on Progress (1970).
Annotation: This frequently overlooked early inspirational work includes the first known use of the term “organic farming” in a chapter heading on page 148, “diversified organic farming a practical proposition.”

According to his son, the present Baron, Northbourne felt obliged, when World War II came in 1939, “to recommend to other farms the chemical methods of stimulating production” in order to “help feed” the country. “Being an honourable person, he therefore felt that he, too, must abandon his organic production and adopt the more conventional methods of fertilising and weed control which were beginning to emerge at that time.” (Personal correspondence 9/88) JPG
Cited in: Blum (1993) Coleman (1976) Conford (2001) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990) Kirschenmann (2004) Korcak (1992) Scofield (1986)

1941
Beeson, Kenneth Crees, 1903-1998
The Mineral Composition of Crops with Particular Reference to the Soils in Which They Were Grown: A Review and Compilation
Washington DC: United States Department of Agriculture, 1941. 164p. “The work represented by this publication was supported by the Bankhead-Jones Research Fund. It was initiated in the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils (now the Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering) and was later transferred to the Bureau of Plant Industry.” Bibliography, p. 59-90. “Sources of unpublished material,” p. 91. (Miscellaneous Publication, 369)
NAL Call no: 1 Ag84M no.369
Full-text: Organic Roots, Organic Agriculture Information Access, https://organicroots.nal.usda.gov/orc/home.xhtml (to be added June, 2007) (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Annotation: Although he found “confusion and contradictory results” in the fertilizer studies he read, Beeson did arrive at a couple of important conclusions with this review. One, “. empirical investigations have quite definitely shown that Liebig’s ‘law of the minimum’ never represented the mechanism of absorption of nutrients by plants and that the actual facts seem to indicate that when one of the principal nutrients is deficient in the soil solution, the others are taken up by the plant in amounts greater than normal. ” and two, that “. fundamental studies of what changes take place in the soil when the fertilizers are applied and the effect these changes will have on the plant are lacking.” Scientists continue to struggle with researching these same issues. MVG

1941
Graham, Michael
Soil and Sense
London: Faber and Faber, 1941. 274p. Preface by Sir E. John Russell. “This book grew out of articles in Riding [magazine].”
NAL Call no: 32 G762
Full-text: Soil and Health Library, Steve Solomon, http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/01principles.html (accessed Jan. 1, 2007)
Other works by this author: A Natural Ecology (1973).
Annotation: In Great Britain, the unprecedented cultivation of traditional pastureland and the introduction of “modern” tillage and fertilization practices during World War II provided much needed food. However, Graham and many others saw this as “land-robbery,” and feared for the future of soils and food production there. Graham emphasized the need to return to integrated grassland and animal production and stated, “. whenever the public purse is used to help farming, that the money should go to good farmers who feed the land as tradition says it should be fed and that none should go to those who merely exploit it.” MVG
Cited in: Coleman (1976) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990)

1942
Barlow, Kenneth Elliott, 1906-2000
The Discipline of Peace
London: C. Knight, 1971 (oldest edition held by the National Agricultural Library). 147p. Other editions: 2nd edition, 1971, includes a new Introduction by the author and preface by Robert Waller. (Classics of Human Ecology, 2)
NAL Call no: GN320.B3 1971
Other works by this author: A Home of Their Own (1946) The Law and the Loaf (1978) Soil, Food and Health in a Changing World, co-edited with Peter Bunyard (1981) Recognising Health (1988).
Annotation: A medical doctor in Britain, Barlow completed this publication during World War II. It examines the ecological basis of a sustainable and “fulfilling civilization” in the context of post-war reconstruction. “Current concerns about food quality and the dangers of a technological attitude to the environment were anticipated 60 years ago by Barlow and a farsighted group of agriculturalists, doctors and writers. They developed an organic philosophy and established the Soil Association to put principles into practice Barlow was a founder member.” “Obituary: Dr Kenneth Barlow,” by Philip Conford, in The Independent (London), Mar 1, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20010301/ai_n14375583 (accessed Feb. 1, 2007) MVG
Cited in: Conford (2001) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990)

1942
Billington, Francis Howard, -1947
Compost for Garden Plot or Thousand-acre Farm: A Practical Guide to Modern Methods
London: Faber and Faber, 1942. 88p. Includes a glossary and annotated “Brief Bibliography of Non-technical Works,” p. 85-88. Other editions: 4th edition of this work, revised by Ben Easey, 1956.
NAL Call no: 57.4 B49
Annotation: Written in Britain during World War II, during a shortage of chemical fertilizers, this small volume organized a growing body of information about composting - bio-dynamic practices in Germany, Sir Albert Howard’s Indore methods and the “Quick Return” compost system - into an instructive manual for gardeners and farmers. MVG
Cited in: Coleman (1976) Harwood (1983) Harwood (1990)


The Future of the Sustainable Agriculture Concept

Many in the agricultural community have adopted the sense of urgency and direction pointed to by the sustainable agriculture concept. Lack of sharp definition has not lessened its authenticity. Sustainability has become an integral component of many government, commercial, and non-profit agriculture research efforts, and it is beginning to be woven into agricultural policy. Increasing numbers of farmers and ranchers have embarked on their own paths to sustainability, incorporating integrated and innovative approaches into their own enterprises.

This just-do-it attitude is the real force carrying the issue of sustainability into the next century. "The best way to communicate the meaning of sustainable agriculture is through real-life stories of farmers who are developing sustainable farming systems on their own farms," says John Ikerd, describing the 1,000 Ways to Sustainable Farming project funded by USDA’s Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. The project sought to explore and refine the definition of sustainable agriculture by profiling successful sustainable farmers and ranchers." SARE continued the project, renaming it The New American Farmer. "In addition to describing successful farming practices, the features in The New American Farmer detail the effects of those practices on farm profitability, quality of life, rural communities and the environment." [see The New American Farmer: Profiles of Agricultural Innovation, 2nd ed. (SARE, 2005). Available at SARE Website: http://www.sare.org/publications/naf.htm (8/23/07)]

Critical discussion of the sustainable agriculture concept will and should continue. Understanding will deepen answers will continue to come. On-going dialog is important for another reason: with more parties, each with its own agenda, jumping into the sustainable agriculture "tent," only a continued focus on the real issues and goals will keep sustainable agriculture from becoming so all-encompassing as to become meaningless.

Youngberg and Harwood’s 1989 statement still holds true: "We are yet a long way from knowing just what methods and systems in diverse locations will really lead to sustainability. In many regions of the country, however, and for many crops, the particular mix of methods that will allow curtailing use of harmful farm chemicals or building crop diversity, while also providing economic success, are not yet clear. The stage is set for challenging not only farm practitioners, but also researchers, educators, and farm industry." [Garth Youngberg and Richard Harwood, "Sustainable Farming Systems: Needs and Opportunities," American Journal of Alternative Agriculture (1989) 4(3 & 4): p.100. NAL Call # S605.5.A3]


Watch the video: Chapter 7 Sustainable Farming Solutions (May 2022).