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Mixture Separation (continued)

Mixture Separation (continued)


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Filtration: is used for the separation of heterogeneous mixtures consisting of a solid and a liquid component or a solid and a gaseous component.

The mixture must pass through a filter, which is made of porous material, and larger diameter particles are trapped in the filter. For a material to be used as a filter its pores must have a very small diameter.

Filtration is the separation process used in the vacuum cleaner. Air and dust are sucked in, pass through the filter, which is called a dust bag, solid dust particles are trapped in the filter, and air exits.

Evaporation: is used for homogeneous mixture separation consisting of one solid component and the other liquid. Evaporation is used to separate mixtures when only the solid phase is of interest.

Cooking salt is extracted from seawater by evaporation. Seawater is dammed in large, shallow tanks built in the sand called salt pans. Under the action of the sun and wind, seawater in the salt flats is evaporated and cooking salt and other solid components are deposited at the bottom of the tanks.

Cooking salt is extracted from seawater by evaporation. Seawater is dammed in large, shallow tanks built in the sand called salt pans. Under the action of the sun and wind, seawater in the salt flats is evaporated and cooking salt and other solid components are deposited at the bottom of the tanks.

Coarse salt obtained from salines, in addition to domestic use, is also used in very harsh winter countries to melt snow, as ice covers the streets, roads, pastures. This is because dissolving a substance in a liquid decreases the freezing point of the liquid.

Simple distillation: is used to separate homogeneous mixtures when one component is solid and the other liquid. Simple distillation is used when there is interest in both phases. This process consists of heating the mixture in a suitable apparatus, such as the one below, until the liquid boils. As the vapor of the liquid is less dense, it will exit through the top of the distillation flask reaching the condenser, which is cooled with water, comes into contact with the cold walls, condenses and returns to the liquid state. It is then collected in a suitable container, and the solid remains in the distillation flask.



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