Information

What bird species is this? (Heron-like waterfowl from China)

What bird species is this? (Heron-like waterfowl from China)



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

I need help identifying this bird. (Some sort of heron?)

It was seen in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in September.

It is very common there. It can also swim like a duck, but I've only seen it do this once (it's not something they commonly do). I can supply more photos upon request.

These are two different individuals:


I'd go with juvenile striated heron. I ruled out others such as the chinese pond heron because of the spotted wing plumage and slightly different shape of the patch around the eye. The night heron seems to have a more red eye than the striated heron and appears to have a stubbier beak.

Arkive is a good place to see a lot of pictures of birds, this is a good birding site, and otherwise I use generic google searching (e.g. start with "herons china" or "herons asia") - this at least helps narrow down the search quite substantially and is considerably cheaper than having a library of the worlds bird books!


Based on some external advice, I believe it might be a juvenile night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), the only remaining question being why I didn't see any adults.

Link to Google Image search results

Update: I went back to the same location today and saw some adult night herons, which convinced me that these were juveniles of the same species.


Evolution of birds

The evolution of birds began in the Jurassic Period, with the earliest birds derived from a clade of theropod dinosaurs named Paraves. [1] Birds are categorized as a biological class, Aves. For more than a century, the small theropod dinosaur Archaeopteryx lithographica from the Late Jurassic period was considered to have been the earliest bird. Modern phylogenies place birds in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. According to the current consensus, Aves and a sister group, the order Crocodilia, together are the sole living members of an unranked "reptile" clade, the Archosauria. Four distinct lineages of bird survived the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago, giving rise to ostriches and relatives (Paleognathae), ducks and relatives (Anseriformes), ground-living fowl (Galliformes), and "modern birds" (Neoaves).

Phylogenetically, Aves is usually defined as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of a specific modern bird species (such as the house sparrow, Passer domesticus), and either Archaeopteryx, [2] or some prehistoric species closer to Neornithes (to avoid the problems caused by the unclear relationships of Archaeopteryx to other theropods). [3] If the latter classification is used then the larger group is termed Avialae. Currently, the relationship between dinosaurs, Archaeopteryx, and modern birds is still under debate.


Archaeologists Find 13,500-Year-Old Bird Figurine in China

An international team of archaeologists has uncovered a diminutive carving, depicting a standing bird, at the Paleolithic site of Lingjing in Henan, China. The artifact is estimated to be 13,500 years old, making it the oldest example of East Asian 3D art ever discovered.

Lingjing bird carving: (A) photographs of the six aspects of the carvings (B) 3D renderings of the carving obtained by CT scan. Scale bars – 2 mm. Image credit: Li et al, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233370.

The open-air site of Lingjing, about 120 km south of the Yellow River, was discovered in 1965 and excavated yearly from 2005 to 2018.

The excavations identified eleven distinct layers ranging in age from 120,000 years ago to the Bronze Age.

Dr. Zhanyang Li from Shandong University and colleagues found several artifacts, including pottery sherds, burned animal remains, and the bird figurine, in sediments (layer 5) dated to 13,500 years ago.

The figurine is 19.2 mm in length, 5.1 mm in width, 12.5 mm tall, and depicts a small standing bird.

Its proportions, i.e., short head and neck, robust, rounded bill and long tail, are reminiscent of a passerine bird.

“In lieu of the passerine short legs, a large, rectangular pedestal allows the figurine to stand in the upright position. The oversized tail prevents the object from tilting forward,” the archaeologists said.

“Passeriformes (passerine birds) is an order that encompasses more than half of all known extant bird species. Unfortunately, the lack of minute details on the figurine prevents a more precise identification.”

The Lingjing bird figurine predates previously known comparable artifacts from this region by 8,500 years.

“The bird figurine from Lingjing constitutes the first carving found at an East Asian Paleolithic site and it differs technologically and stylistically from previous and contemporaneous representations of avifauna found in Europe and Siberia,” the researchers said.

“The earliest known statuettes, made of mammoth ivory and including a flying waterfowl, are found in the Swabian Jura. They are dated to 40,000-38,000 years ago.”

“Few other 3D carvings representing birds, made of teeth and antler, come from West European late Upper Paleolithic sites.”

“The only Paleolithic bird carvings from Asia are those found at Mal’ta and Buret’, two neighboring Siberian sites located west of Lake Baikal. They mainly consist of pendants made of ivory and antler representing flying waterfowls.”

“The Lingjing figurine is the only Paleolithic 3D object carved in burnt bone and representing a bird standing on a pedestal,” they said.

“It is also the only Paleolithic carving for which, thanks to its exceptional state of preservation, the final stages of manufacture could be documented in detail.”


Great Egrets are tall, long-legged wading birds with long, S-curved necks and long, dagger-like bills. In flight, the long neck is tucked in and the legs extend far beyond the tip of the short tail.

Relative Size

Smaller than a Great Blue Heron larger than a Snowy Egret.

goose-sized or larger

Measurements
  • Both Sexes
    • Length: 37.0-40.9 in (94-104 cm)
    • Weight: 35.3 oz (1000 g)
    • Wingspan: 51.6-57.1 in (131-145 cm)

    All feathers on Great Egrets are white. Their bills are yellowish-orange, and the legs black.

    Great Egrets wade in shallow water (both fresh and salt) to hunt fish, frogs, and other small aquatic animals. They typically stand still and watch for unsuspecting prey to pass by. Then, with startling speed, the egrets strike with a jab of their long neck and bill.

    You’ll find Great Egrets in both freshwater and saltwater habitats. They are colonial nesters, typically placing stick nests high in trees, often on islands that are isolated from mammalian predators such as raccoons.


    Bird Watching

    You have probably watched birds at some point in your life, whether intentionally or simply while looking in your backyard, visiting a park or a national wildlife refuge, or hiking on a trail. A soaring Bald Eagle, an Acorn Woodpecker tapping on a dead snag, a Gadwall landing on a pond, a singing Wood Thrush - all of these conjure up strong images in our minds.

    Over 46 million Americans count ourselves as bird watchers, or "birders." Being a bird enthusiast takes many forms. You may simply notice the birds you see on evening walks or keep a backyard feeder filled with tasty enticements. Perhaps you own a bird guide (or two or three), always have your binoculars within easy reach, or plan your vacations around spring warbler migration.

    Maybe you have a "life list" and know exactly how many birds are left to complete it. Or maybe you don't even keep track of what you see. Regardless of how we engage with birds and bird watching, many of us are thrilled daily to see our feathered friends.

    Birding can be a solitary or group activity. It doesn't take much to get started bird watching except a desire to see birds. Start by observing birds around you. Tools such as binoculars can help you bring birds into focus. Learning to look for and compare specific traits - including colors, patterns and sounds - will help you identify different species. By visiting different habitats during different seasons you can learn which species will come to specific areas at certain times.

    Bird watchers, make your voice count! Support habitat conservation for birds and other wildlife by purchasing Federal Duck Stamps through the American Birding Association.

    Whether you are just discovering the joys of bird watching or you are an experienced birder, we hope to provide you with some helpful resources. Young birders will also find information and activities developed especially for them.


    North America Has Lost 3 Billion Birds, Scientists Say

    Migrating shorebirds at Kimbles Beach, N.J. Researchers estimate that the population of North American shorebirds alone has fallen by more than a third since 1970.

    Over the past half-century, North America has lost more than a quarter of its entire bird population, or around 3 billion birds.

    That's according to a new estimate published in the journal Science by researchers who brought together a variety of information that has been collected on 529 bird species since 1970.

    "We saw this tremendous net loss across the entire bird community," says Ken Rosenberg, an applied conservation scientist at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in Ithaca, N.Y. "By our estimates, it's a 30% loss in the total number of breeding birds."

    Rosenberg and his colleagues already knew that a number of bird populations had been decreasing.

    "But we also knew that other bird populations were increasing," he says. "And what we didn't know is whether there was a net change." Scientists thought there might simply be a shift in the total bird population toward more generalist birds adapted to living around humans.

    To find out, the researchers collected data from long-running surveys conducted with the help of volunteer bird spotters, such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey and the Audubon Christmas Bird Count. They combined that data with a decade's worth of data on migrating bird flocks detected by 143 weather radar installations.

    Their results show that more than 90% of the loss can be attributed to just a dozen bird families, including sparrows, warblers, blackbirds and finches.

    Common birds with decreasing populations include meadowlarks, dark-eyed juncos, horned larks and red-winged blackbirds, says Rosenberg. Grassland birds have suffered a 53% decrease in their numbers, and more than a third of the shorebird population has been lost.

    A horned lark Larry Keller/Getty Images hide caption


    Contents

    Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Lesser whistling-duck Dendrocygna javanica
    Bar-headed goose Anser indicus Very rare winter visitor
    Graylag goose Anser anser Accidental
    Swan goose Anser cygnoides Accidental
    Greater white-fronted goose Anser albifrons Accidental
    Knob-billed duck Sarkidiornis melanotos Rare resident
    Ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea Rare winter visitor
    Common shelduck Tadorna tadorna Very rare winter visitor
    Cotton pygmy-goose Nettapus coromandelianus
    Mandarin duck Aix galericulata Accidental
    Baikal teal Sibirionetta formosa Accidental
    Garganey Spatula querquedula Winter visitor
    Northern shoveler Spatula clypeata Winter visitor
    Gadwall Mareca strepera Very rare winter visitor
    Falcated duck Mareca falcata
    Eurasian wigeon Mareca penelope Winter visitor
    Indian spot-billed duck Anas poecilorhyncha Rare winter visitor
    Eastern spot-billed duck Anas zonorhyncha Rare winter visitor
    Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
    Northern pintail Anas acuta Winter visitor
    Green-winged teal Anas crecca Winter visitor
    White-winged duck Asarcornis scutulata Very rare resident, endangered
    Red-crested pochard Netta rufina Very rare winter visitor
    Common pochard Aythya ferina Very rare winter visitor
    Ferruginous duck Aythya nyroca Rare winter visitor
    Baer's pochard Aythya baeri Rare winter visitor, critically endangered
    Tufted duck Aythya fuligula Rare winter visitor
    Greater scaup Aythya marila Accidental
    Long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis Accidental
    Scaly-sided merganser Mergus squamatus Accidental, endangered

    The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls, and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Ferruginous partridge Caloperdix oculeus
    Crested partridge Rollulus rouloul
    Rufous-throated partridge Arborophila rufogularis
    Malaysian partridge Arborophila campbelli
    Bar-backed partridge Arborophila brunneopectus
    Chestnut-headed partridge Arborophila cambodiana
    Scaly-breasted partridge Arborophila chloropus
    Chestnut-necklaced partridge Arborophila charltonii
    Long-billed partridge Rhizothera longirostris
    Great argus Argusianus argus
    Green peafowl Pavo muticus Endangered
    Malayan peacock-pheasant Polyplectron malacense
    Mountain peacock-pheasant Polyplectron inopinatum Accidental
    Gray peacock-pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum
    Blue-breasted quail Synoicus chinesis
    Japanese quail Coturnix japonica Very rare winter visitor
    Common quail Coturnix coturnix
    Rain quail Coturnix coromandelica
    Chinese francolin Francolinus pintadeanus
    Mountain bamboo-partridge Bambusicola fytchii
    Red junglefowl Gallus gallus
    Hume's pheasant Syrmaticus humiae Rare
    Silver pheasant Lophura nycthemera
    Kalij pheasant Lophura leucomelanos
    Siamese fireback Lophura diardi
    Crested fireback Lophura ignita Rare

    Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Greater flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus Accidental

    Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. Their feet are placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.

    Name Binomial Status
    Little grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
    Horned grebe Podiceps auritus Accidental
    Great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus Very rare winter visitor
    Eared grebe Podiceps nigricollis Accidental

    Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Rock pigeon Columba livia Due to hybridisation with feral pigeons, few if any pure-bred birds remain in Thailand [4]
    Speckled wood-pigeon Columba hodgsonii
    Ashy wood-pigeon Columba pulchricollis
    Pale-capped pigeon Columba punicea Rare, uncertain status
    Oriental turtle-dove Streptopelia orientalis
    Red collared-dove Streptopelia tranquebarica
    Spotted dove Streptopelia chinensis
    Barred cuckoo-dove Macropygia unchall
    Little cuckoo-dove Macropygia ruficeps
    Asian emerald dove Chalcophaps indica
    Zebra dove Geopelia striata Native in south, introduced to central Thailand [5]
    Nicobar pigeon Caloenas nicobarica Rare
    Little green-pigeon Treron olax Rare
    Pink-necked pigeon Treron vernans
    Cinnamon-headed pigeon Treron fulvicollis
    Orange-breasted pigeon Treron bicinctus
    Ashy-headed green-pigeon Treron phayrei
    Thick-billed pigeon Treron curvirostra
    Large green-pigeon Treron capellei Rare
    Yellow-footed green-pigeon Treron phoenicopterus
    Yellow-vented green-pigeon Treron seimundi Very rare
    Pin-tailed green-pigeon Treron apicauda
    Wedge-tailed green-pigeon Treron sphenurus
    White-bellied green-pigeon Treron sieboldii Very rare
    Jambu fruit-dove Ptilinopus jambu
    Green imperial-pigeon Ducula aenea
    Mountain imperial-pigeon Ducula badia
    Pied imperial-pigeon Ducula bicolor

    The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails, and strong legs. Many Old World cuckoo species are brood parasites.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Coral-billed ground-cuckoo Carpococcyx renauldi
    Short-toed coucal Centropus rectunguis Accidental
    Greater coucal Centropus sinensis
    Lesser coucal Centropus bengalensis
    Raffles's malkoha Rhinortha chlorophaea
    Red-billed malkoha Zanclostomus javanicus
    Chestnut-breasted malkoha Phaenicophaeus curvirostris
    Chestnut-bellied malkoha Phaenicophaeus sumatranus
    Black-bellied malkoha Phaenicophaeus diardi
    Green-billed malkoha Phaenicophaeus tristis
    Chestnut-winged cuckoo Clamator coromandus Summer visitor and on passage
    Pied cuckoo Clamator jacobinus
    Asian koel Eudynamys scolopaceus
    Asian emerald cuckoo Chrysococcyx maculatus Resident and winter visitor
    Violet cuckoo Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus
    Little bronze-cuckoo Chrysococcyx minutillus
    Banded bay cuckoo Cacomantis sonneratii
    Plaintive cuckoo Cacomantis merulinus
    Brush cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus
    Fork-tailed drongo-cuckoo Surniculus dicruroides
    Square-tailed drongo-cuckoo Surniculus lugubris
    Moustached hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx vagans
    Large hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx sparverioides
    Dark hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx bocki
    Common hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx varius
    Hodgson's hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx nisicolor
    Malaysian hawk-cuckoo Hierococcyx fugax
    Lesser cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus Very rare
    Indian cuckoo Cuculus micropterus
    Himalayan cuckoo Cuculus saturatus
    Sunda cuckoo Cuculus lepidus
    Common cuckoo Cuculus canorus Uncertain status

    The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. They are named for their large flattened hooked bill and huge frog-like gape, which they use to take insects.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Large frogmouth Batrachostomus auritus Very rare
    Gould's frogmouth Batrachostomus stellatus Rare
    Hodgson's frogmouth Batrachostomus hodgsoni
    Blyth's frogmouth Batrachostomus affinis

    Nightjars are medium-sized ground-nesting nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Malaysian eared-nightjar Lyncornis temminckii
    Great eared-nightjar Lyncornis macrotis
    Gray nightjar Caprimulgus jotaka Winter visitor, breeds in mountains
    Large-tailed nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus
    Indian nightjar Caprimulgus asiaticus
    Savanna nightjar Caprimulgus affinis

    Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Silver-rumped needletail Rhaphidura leucopygialis
    White-throated needletail Hirundapus caudacutus Rare migrant
    Silver-backed needletail Hirundapus cochinchinensis Uncertain status
    Brown-backed needletail Hirundapus giganteus
    Plume-toed swiftlet Collocalia affinis Rare
    Himalayan swiftlet Aerodramus brevirostris Breeds in highlands, winter visitor elsewhere
    Black-nest swiftlet Aerodramus maximus
    White-nest swiftlet Aerodramus fuciphagus
    Germain's swiftlet Aerodramus germani
    Common swift Apus apus Accidental
    Pacific swift Apus pacificus Winter visitor, some breed
    Cook's swift Apus cooki
    Dark-rumped swift Apus acuticauda Very rare winter visitor
    House swift Apus nipalensis
    Asian palm-swift Cypsiurus balasiensis

    The treeswifts, also called crested swifts, are closely related to the true swifts. They differ from the true swifts in that they have crests, long forked tails, and soft plumage.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Crested treeswift Hemiprocne coronata
    Gray-rumped treeswift Hemiprocne longipennis
    Whiskered treeswift Hemiprocne comata

    Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and appear to be weak fliers.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Brown-cheeked rail Rallus indicus Winter visitor
    Slaty-breasted rail Lewinia striata
    Spotted crake Porzana porzana Very rare winter visitor
    Eurasian moorhen Gallinula chloropus
    Eurasian coot Fulica atra Winter visitor
    Gray-headed swamphen Porphyrio poliocephalus
    Watercock Gallicrex cinerea Summer visitor and resident
    White-breasted waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus
    White-browed crake Porzana cinerea
    Red-legged crake Rallina fasciata
    Slaty-legged crake Rallina eurizonoides Rare, mainly winter visitor
    Ruddy-breasted crake Zapornia fusca
    Band-bellied crake Zapornia paykullii Accidental
    Baillon's crake Zapornia pusilla Winter visitor
    Black-tailed crake Zapornia bicolor Rare

    Heliornithidae is small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Masked finfoot Heliopais personatus Winter visitor and passage migrant, endangered

    Cranes are large, long-legged, and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".

    Common name Binomial Status
    Demoiselle crane Anthropoides virgo Accidental
    Sarus crane Antigone antigone Extirpated
    Common crane Grus grus Accidental

    The thick-knees are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes, and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Indian thick-knee Burhinus indicus
    Great thick-knee Esacus recurvirostris
    Beach thick-knee Esacus magnirostris Rare and local

    Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus Resident and winter visitor
    Pied avocet Recurvirostra avosetta Accidental

    The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Eurasian oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus Accidental

    The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short thick necks, and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Black-bellied plover Pluvialis squatarola Winter visitor
    Pacific golden-plover Pluvialis fulva Winter visitor
    Northern lapwing Vanellus vanellus Rare winter visitor
    River lapwing Vanellus duvaucelii
    Gray-headed lapwing Vanellus cinereus Winter visitor
    Red-wattled lapwing Vanellus indicus
    Lesser sand-plover Charadrius mongolus Winter visitor
    Greater sand-plover Charadrius leschenaultii Winter visitor
    Malaysian plover Charadrius peronii
    Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus Winter visitor
    Common ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula Accidental
    Long-billed plover Charadrius placidus Rare winter visitor
    Little ringed plover Charadrius dubius Winter visitor
    Oriental plover Charadrius veredus Accidental

    Painted-snipes are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured.

    The jacanas are a group of waders found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Pheasant-tailed jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus Winter visitor and resident
    Bronze-winged jacana Metopidius indicus

    Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers, and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus Winter visitor
    Little curlew Numenius minutus Very rare passage migrant
    Far Eastern curlew Numenius madagascariensis Rare passage migrant, endangered
    Eurasian curlew Numenius arquata Winter visitor
    Bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica Winter visitor
    Black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa Winter visitor
    Ruddy turnstone Arenaria interpres Winter visitor
    Great knot Calidris tenuirostris Mainly passage migrant, endangered
    Red knot Calidris canutus Winter visitor
    Ruff Calidris pugnax Winter and passage visitor
    Broad-billed sandpiper Calidris falcinellus Winter visitor
    Sharp-tailed sandpiper Calidris acuminata Very rare winter visitor
    Curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea Winter visitor
    Temminck's stint Calidris temminckii Winter visitor
    Long-toed stint Calidris subminuta Winter visitor
    Spoon-billed sandpiper Calidris pygmaea Rare on passage and in winter, critically endangered [6]
    Red-necked stint Calidris ruficollis Common winter visitor
    Sanderling Calidris alba Winter visitor
    Dunlin Calidris alpina Rare winter visitor
    Little stint Calidris minuta Rare in winter
    Pectoral sandpiper Calidris melanotos Accidental
    Asian dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus Rare on passage
    Long-billed dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus Accidental
    Jack snipe Lymnocryptes minimus Rare winter visitor
    Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola Winter visitor
    Wood snipe Gallinago nemoricola Very rare winter visitor
    Common snipe Gallinago gallinago Winter visitor
    Pin-tailed snipe Gallinago stenura Winter visitor
    Swinhoe's snipe Gallinago megala Very rare winter visitor
    Terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus Winter visitor
    Red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus Rare in winter or on passage
    Red phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius Rare in winter or on passage
    Common sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos Winter visitor
    Green sandpiper Tringa ochropus Winter visitor
    Gray-tailed tattler Tringa brevipes Rare on passage
    Spotted redshank Tringa erythropus Winter visitor
    Common greenshank Tringa nebularia Winter visitor
    Nordmann's greenshank Tringa guttifer Rare winter visitor, endangered
    Marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis Winter visitor
    Wood sandpiper Tringa glareola Winter visitor
    Common redshank Tringa totanus Winter visitor

    The buttonquail are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Small buttonquail Turnix sylvaticus
    Yellow-legged buttonquail Turnix tanki
    Barred buttonquail Turnix suscitator

    The crab-plover is related to the waders, but is the only member of its family. It resembles a plover but has very long grey legs and a strong black bill similar to that of a tern. It has black-and-white plumage, a long neck, partially webbed feet, and a bill designed for eating crabs.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Crab-plover Dromas ardeola Rare but annual in winter

    Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings, and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings, and long, pointed bills which curve downwards.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Collared pratincole Glareola pratincola Accidental
    Oriental pratincole Glareola maldivarum Summer visitor
    Small pratincole Glareola lactea Resident and winter visitor

    The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Pomarine jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus Winter visitor
    Parasitic jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus Rare winter visitor
    Long-tailed jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus

    Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls, terns, and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla Accidental
    Sabine's gull Xema sabini Accidental
    Slender-billed gull Chroicocephalus genei Very rare winter visitor
    Black-headed gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus Winter visitor
    Brown-headed gull Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus Rare winter visitor
    Little gull Hydrocoloeus minutus Accidental
    Sooty gull Ichthyaetus hemprichii Accidental
    Pallas's gull Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus Very rare winter visitor
    Black-tailed gull Larus crassirostris Very rare winter visitor
    Mew gull Larus canus Accidental
    Herring gull Larus argentatus
    Caspian gull Larus cachinnans Accidental
    Lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus Accidental
    Slaty-backed gull Larus schistisagus Accidental
    Brown noddy Anous stolidus
    Sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus
    Bridled tern Onychoprion anaethetus
    Aleutian tern Onychoprion aleuticus Accidental
    Little tern Sternula albifrons
    Gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica Winter visitor
    Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia Winter visitor
    White-winged tern Chlidonias leucopterus Winter visitor
    Whiskered tern Chlidonias hybrida
    Roseate tern Sterna dougallii
    Black-naped tern Sterna sumatrana
    Common tern Sterna hirundo Winter visitor
    Black-bellied tern Sterna acuticauda Endangered
    River tern Sterna aurantia
    Great crested tern Thalasseus bergii
    Lesser crested tern Thalasseus bengalensis Rare winter visitor
    Chinese crested tern Thalasseus bernsteini Accidental, critically endangered
    Indian skimmer Rynchops albicollis

    Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings.

    Common name Binomial Status
    White-tailed tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Accidental
    Red-billed tropicbird Phaethon aethereus Accidental
    Red-tailed tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda Accidental

    The albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses of the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Laysan albatross Phoebastria immutabilis Accidental

    Storm-petrels are small birds which spend most of their lives at sea, coming ashore only to breed. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering or pattering across the water. Their flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Swinhoe's storm-petrel Oceanodroma monorhis Accidental

    The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary.

    Common name Binomial Status
    White-necked petrel Pterodroma cervicalis Accidental
    Streaked shearwater Calonectris leucomelas Very rare winter visitor
    Wedge-tailed shearwater Ardenna pacificus Accidental
    Short-tailed shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris Accidental

    Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are virtually mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Asian openbill Anastomus oscitans
    Black stork Ciconia nigra Rare winter visitor
    Woolly-necked stork Ciconia episcopus
    Storm's stork Ciconia stormi Endangered
    White stork Ciconia ciconia Accidental
    Oriental stork Ciconia boyciana Endangered
    Black-necked stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus Extirpated
    Lesser adjutant Leptoptilos javanicus Rare
    Greater adjutant Leptoptilos dubius Extirpated, endangered
    Milky stork Mycteria cinerea Endangered
    Painted stork Mycteria leucocephala

    Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white, or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Lesser frigatebird Fregata ariel Winter visitor
    Christmas Island frigatebird Fregata andrewsi Winter visitor, critically endangered
    Great frigatebird Fregata minor Rare

    The gannets and boobies are medium to large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Masked booby Sula dactylatra
    Brown booby Sula leucogaster Rare visitor, formerly bred
    Red-footed booby Sula sula Accidental

    Anhingas or darters are often called "snake-birds" because they have long thin necks, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage, especially, on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Oriental darter Anhinga melanogaster Rare

    The Phalacrocoracidae are a family of medium to large fish-eating birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies the majority of species have mainly dark plumage, but some are pied black and white, and a few are more colourful.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Little cormorant Microcarbo niger
    Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
    Indian cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis Rare winter visitor, formerly bred

    Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. They have webbed feet with four toes.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Spot-billed pelican Pelecanus philippensis Rare, probably once bred

    The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons, and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises, and spoonbills, members of this family fly with their necks retracted.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Great bittern Botaurus stellaris Winter visitor
    Yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis
    Schrenck's bittern Ixobrychus eurhythmus Passage migrant
    Cinnamon bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
    Black bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis
    Gray heron Ardea cinerea Winter visitor, formerly bred
    Great-billed heron Ardea sumatrana Now very rare
    Purple heron Ardea purpurea Winter visitor
    Great egret Ardea alba
    Intermediate egret Ardea intermedia Winter visitor
    Chinese egret Egretta eulophotes Very rare winter visitor
    Little egret Egretta garzetta
    Pacific reef-heron Egretta sacra
    Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis
    Indian pond-heron Ardeola grayii
    Chinese pond-heron Ardeola bacchus Winter visitor
    Javan pond-heron Ardeola speciosa
    Striated heron Butorides striata
    Black-crowned night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax
    Malayan night-heron Gorsachius melanolophus

    Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which comprises the ibises and spoonbills. Its members have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary flight feathers. They are strong fliers and, despite their size and weight, very capable soarers.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus
    African sacred ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus Introduced species
    Black-headed ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus
    White-shouldered ibis Pseudibis davisoni Extirpated, critically endangered
    Giant ibis Pseudibis gigantea Extirpated, critically endangered
    Eurasian spoonbill Platalea leucorodia Very rare winter visitor
    Black-faced spoonbill Platalea minor Very rare winter visitor, endangered

    The family Pandionidae contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Osprey Pandion haliaetus Winter visitor

    Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey which includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers, and Old World vultures. These birds mostly have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Black-winged kite Elanus caeruleus
    Oriental honey-buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus
    Jerdon's baza Aviceda jerdoni
    Black baza Aviceda leuphotes
    Red-headed vulture Sarcogyps calvus Critically endangered
    Cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus Rare winter visitor
    White-rumped vulture Gyps bengalensis Possibly extirpated, critically endangered [7]
    Slender-billed vulture Gyps tenuirostris Extirpated, critically endangered
    Himalayan griffon Gyps himalayensis Accidental
    Crested serpent-eagle Spilornis cheela
    Short-toed snake-eagle Circaetus gallicus Rare passage migrant and winter visitor
    Bat hawk Macheiramphus alcinus
    Changeable hawk-eagle Nisaetus cirrhatus
    Mountain hawk-eagle Nisaetus nipalensis
    Blyth's hawk-eagle Nisaetus alboniger
    Wallace's hawk-eagle Nisaetus nanus
    Rufous-bellied eagle Lophotriorchis kienerii
    Black eagle Ictinaetus malaiensis
    Greater spotted eagle Clanga clanga Uncommon passage migrant and winter visitor
    Booted eagle Hieraaetus pennatus Rare passage migrant and winter visitor
    Steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis Accidental, endangered
    Imperial eagle Aquila heliaca Rare winter visitor
    Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata Rare
    White-eyed buzzard Butastur teesa Accidental
    Rufous-winged buzzard Butastur liventer
    Gray-faced buzzard Butastur indicus Passage migrant and winter visitor
    Eurasian marsh-harrier Circus aeruginosus Rare winter visitor
    Eastern marsh-harrier Circus spilonotus Winter visitor
    Hen harrier Circus cyaneus Rare winter visitor
    Pallid harrier Circus macrourus Accidental
    Pied harrier Circus melanoleucos Winter visitor
    Crested goshawk Accipiter trivirgatus
    Shikra Accipiter badius
    Chinese sparrowhawk Accipiter soloensis Passage migrant and winter visitor
    Japanese sparrowhawk Accipiter gularis Passage migrant and winter visitor
    Besra Accipiter virgatus
    Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus Rare winter visitor
    Northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis Rare winter visitor
    Black kite Milvus migrans Winter visitor, some breed
    Brahminy kite Haliastur indus
    White-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla Accidental
    Pallas's fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus Accidental, possibly extirpated [8] endangered
    White-bellied sea-eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster
    Lesser fish-eagle Ichthyophaga humilis Rare resident
    Gray-headed fish-eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Very rare
    Common buzzard Buteo buteo
    Himalayan buzzard Buteo refectus
    Eastern buzzard Buteo japonicus Winter visitor
    Long-legged buzzard Buteo rufinus Accidental

    Barn-owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Australasian grass-owl Tyto longimembris
    Barn owl Tyto alba
    Oriental bay-owl Phodilus badius

    The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.

    Common name Binomial Status
    White-fronted scops-owl Otus sagittatus Rare
    Reddish scops-owl Otus rufescens Rare
    Mountain scops-owl Otus spilocephalus
    Collared scops-owl Otus lettia
    Sunda scops-owl Otus lempiji
    Oriental scops-owl Otus sunia
    Spot-bellied eagle-owl Bubo nipalensis
    Barred eagle-owl Bubo sumatranus
    Dusky eagle-owl Bubo coromandus Very rare
    Brown fish-owl Ketupa zeylonensis
    Buffy fish-owl Ketupa ketupu
    Collared owlet Glaucidium brodiei
    Asian barred owlet Glaucidium cuculoides
    Spotted owlet Athene brama
    Spotted wood-owl Strix seloputo
    Brown wood-owl Strix leptogrammica
    Short-eared owl Asio flammeus Very rare winter visitor
    Brown boobook Ninox scutulata
    Northern boobook Ninox japonica Accidental

    The family Trogonidae includes the trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Red-naped trogon Harpactes kasumba Rare
    Diard's trogon Harpactes diardii
    Cinnamon-rumped trogon Harpactes orrhophaeus Rare
    Scarlet-rumped trogon Harpactes duvaucelii
    Red-headed trogon Harpactes erythrocephalus
    Orange-breasted trogon Harpactes oreskios

    Hoopoes have black, white, and pink plumage and a large erectile crest on the head.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops

    Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured.

    Common name Binomial Status
    White-crowned hornbill Berenicornis comatus Endangered
    Helmeted hornbill Buceros vigil Critically endangered
    Rhinoceros hornbill Buceros rhinoceros Rare, far south
    Great hornbill Buceros bicornis
    Bushy-crested hornbill Anorrhinus galeritus
    Brown hornbill Anorrhinus austeni
    Rusty-cheeked hornbill Anorrhinus tickelli
    Black hornbill Anthracoceros malayanus Rare
    Oriental pied-hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris
    Rufous-necked hornbill Aceros nipalensis Rare
    Wreathed hornbill Rhyticeros undulatus
    Plain-pouched hornbill Rhyticeros subruficollis Rare
    Wrinkled hornbill Rhabdotorrhinus corrugatus Endangered

    Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Blyth's kingfisher Alcedo hercules Very rare winter visitor
    Common kingfisher Alcedo atthis Very common winter visitor
    Blue-eared kingfisher Alcedo meninting
    Blue-banded kingfisher Alcedo euryzona
    Black-backed dwarf-kingfisher Ceyx erithaca
    Rufous-backed dwarf-kingfisher Ceyx rufidorsa
    Banded kingfisher Lacedo pulchella
    Brown-winged kingfisher Pelargopsis amauroptera
    Stork-billed kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis
    Ruddy kingfisher Halcyon coromanda
    White-throated kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
    Black-capped kingfisher Halcyon pileata Winter visitor and passage migrant
    Sacred kingfisher Todiramphus sanctus Accidental
    Collared kingfisher Todirhamphus chloris
    Rufous-collared kingfisher Actenoides concretus Rare and reduced
    Crested kingfisher Megaceryle lugubris
    Pied kingfisher Ceryle rudis

    The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, southern Asia, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies, and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long down-turned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Red-bearded bee-eater Nyctyornis amictus
    Blue-bearded bee-eater Nyctyornis athertoni
    Green bee-eater Merops orientalis
    Blue-throated bee-eater Merops viridis Resident, winter visitor and passage migrant
    Blue-tailed bee-eater Merops philippinus Resident, winter visitor and passage migrant
    Chestnut-headed bee-eater Merops leschenaulti

    Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Indochinese roller Coracias affinis
    Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis

    The Asian barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Sooty barbet Caloramphus hayii
    Coppersmith barbet Psilopogon haemacephalus
    Blue-eared barbet Psilopogon duvaucelii
    Fire-tufted barbet Psilopogon pyrolophus Accidental
    Great barbet Psilopogon virens
    Red-crowned barbet Psilopogon rafflesii Rare
    Red-throated barbet Psilopogon mystacophanos
    Yellow-crowned barbet Psilopogon henricii
    Green-eared barbet Psilopogon faiostrictus
    Lineated barbet Psilopogon lineatus
    Golden-throated barbet Psilopogon franklinii
    Necklaced barbet Psilopogon auricularis
    Gold-whiskered barbet Psilopogon chrysopogon
    Moustached barbet Psilopogon incognitus
    Blue-throated barbet Psilopogon asiaticus
    Black-browed barbet Psilopogon oorti
    Turquoise-throated barbet Psilopogon chersonesus Endemic

    Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the greater honeyguide which leads traditional honey-hunters to bees' nests and, after the hunters have harvested the honey, feeds on the remaining contents of the hive.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Malaysian honeyguide Indicator archipelagicus Rare

    Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails, and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Eurasian wryneck Jynx torquilla Winter visitor
    Speckled piculet Picumnus innominatus
    Rufous piculet Sasia abnormis
    White-browed piculet Sasia ochracea
    Gray-and-buff woodpecker Hemicircus concretus
    Heart-spotted woodpecker Hemicircus canente
    Sunda woodpecker Yungipicus moluccensis Accidental
    Gray-capped woodpecker Yungipicus canicapillus
    Yellow-crowned woodpecker Leiopicus mahrattensis Rare
    Rufous-bellied woodpecker Dendrocopos hyperythrus
    Freckle-breasted woodpecker Dendrocopos analis
    Stripe-breasted woodpecker Dendrocopos atratus
    Crimson-breasted woodpecker Dryobates cathpharius
    Maroon woodpecker Blythipicus rubiginosus
    Bay woodpecker Blythipicus pyrrhotis
    Orange-backed woodpecker Reinwardtipicus validus
    Greater flameback Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus
    Rufous woodpecker Micropternus brachyurus
    Buff-necked woodpecker Meiglyptes tukki
    Buff-rumped woodpecker Meiglyptes tristis
    Black-and-buff woodpecker Meiglyptes jugularis
    Pale-headed woodpecker Gecinulus grantia
    Bamboo woodpecker Gecinulus viridis
    Olive-backed woodpecker Dinopium rafflesii Rare
    Common flameback Dinopium javanense
    Lesser yellownape Picus chlorolophus
    Crimson-winged woodpecker Picus puniceus
    Streak-throated woodpecker Picus xanthopygaeus
    Streak-breasted woodpecker Picus viridanus
    Laced woodpecker Picus vittatus
    Gray-headed woodpecker Picus canus
    Black-headed woodpecker Picus erythropygius
    Banded woodpecker Chrysophlegma miniaceum
    Greater yellownape Chrysophlegma flavinucha
    Checker-throated woodpecker Chrysophlegma mentale
    Great slaty woodpecker Mulleripicus pulverulentus
    White-bellied woodpecker Dryocopus javensis

    Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons.

    Common name Binomial Status
    White-rumped falcon Polihierax insignis
    Collared falconet Microhierax caerulescens
    Black-thighed falconet Microhierax fringillarius
    Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus Winter visitor
    Amur falcon Falco amurensis Very rare passage migrant
    Merlin Falco columbarius Accidental
    Eurasian hobby Falco subbuteo Rare winter visitor
    Oriental hobby Falco severus
    Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus Mainly winter visitor

    Characteristic features of parrots include a strong curved bill, an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. In size they range from 8 cm (3.1 in) to 1 m (3.3 ft) in length. Old World parrots are found from Africa east across south and southeast Asia and Oceania to Australia and New Zealand.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Blue-rumped parrot Psittinus cyanurus Rare, much reduced
    Alexandrine parakeet Psittacula eupatria Rare, much reduced
    Rose-ringed parakeet Psittacula krameri Introduced species
    Gray-headed parakeet Psittacula finschii
    Blossom-headed parakeet Psittacula roseata
    Red-breasted parakeet Psittacula alexandri
    Vernal hanging-parrot Loriculus vernalis
    Blue-crowned hanging-parrot Loriculus galgulus

    The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds, which feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Green broadbill Calyptomena viridis

    The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds, which feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Black-and-red broadbill Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos
    Long-tailed broadbill Psarisomus dalhousiae
    Silver-breasted broadbill Serilophus lunatus
    Banded broadbill Eurylaimus javanicus
    Black-and-yellow broadbill Eurylaimus ochromalus
    Dusky broadbill Corydon sumatranus

    Pittas are medium-sized stocky passerines with fairly long, strong legs, short tails, and stout bills. Many are brightly coloured. They spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects, and similar invertebrate prey.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Garnet pitta Erythropitta granatina Rare
    Eared pitta Hydrornis phayrei
    Rusty-naped pitta Hydrornis oatesi
    Blue-naped pitta Hydrornis nipalensis
    Blue-rumped pitta Hydrornis soror
    Giant pitta Hydrornis caeruleus Rare
    Malayan banded-pitta Hydrornis irena
    Blue pitta Hydrornis cyaneus
    Bar-bellied pitta Hydrornis elliotii Rare
    Gurney's pitta Hydrornis gurneyi Rediscovered 1986, rare and endangered [9]
    Blue-winged pitta Pitta moluccensis Summer visitor, passage migrant
    Fairy pitta Pitta nympha Accidental
    Hooded pitta Pitta sordida
    Mangrove pitta Pitta megarhyncha

    The Acanthizidae are small- to medium-sized birds with short rounded wings, slender bills, long legs, and a short tail. The golden-bellied gerygone is the only member of the family found in mainland Asia.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Golden-bellied gerygone Gerygone sulphurea

    The cuckooshrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some minivet species are brightly coloured.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Fiery minivet Pericrocotus igneus
    Small minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
    Grey-chinned minivet Pericrocotus solaris
    Short-billed minivet Pericrocotus brevirostris
    Long-tailed minivet Pericrocotus ethologus
    Scarlet minivet Pericrocotus speciosus
    Ashy minivet Pericrocotus divaricatus Winter visitor
    Brown-rumped minivet Pericrocotus cantonensis
    Rosy minivet Pericrocotus roseus Winter visitor
    Large cuckooshrike Coracina macei
    Bar-bellied cuckooshrike Coracina striata Rare, much reduced
    Javan cuckooshrike Coracina javensis Accidental
    Pied triller Lalage nigra
    Black-winged cuckooshrike Lalage melaschistos Resident and winter visitor
    Lesser cuckooshrike Lalage fimbriata
    Indochinese cuckooshrike Coracina polioptera

    Most of the members of this family are found in the New World. However, the shrike-babblers and erpornis, which only slightly resemble the "true" vireos and greenlets, are found in South East Asia.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Blyth's shrike-babbler Pteruthius aeralatus
    Black-eared shrike-babbler Pteruthius melanotis
    Clicking shrike-babbler Pteruthius intermedius
    White-bellied erpornis Erpornis zantholeuca

    The family Pachycephalidae includes the whistlers, shrikethrushes, and some of the pitohuis.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Mangrove whistler Pachycephala cinerea

    The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds which are not closely related to the New World orioles.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Dark-throated oriole Oriolus xanthonotus
    Black-naped oriole Oriolus chinensis Winter visitor
    Slender-billed oriole Oriolus tenuirostris Winter visitor
    Black-hooded oriole Oriolus xanthornus
    Black-and-crimson oriole Oriolus cruentus Accidental
    Maroon oriole Oriolus traillii
    Silver oriole Oriolus mellianus Rare winter visitor, endangered

    The woodswallows are soft-plumaged, somber-coloured passerine birds. They are smooth, agile flyers with moderately large, semi-triangular wings.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Ashy woodswallow Artamus fuscus
    White-breasted woodswallow Artamus leucorynchus Accidental

    The family Vangidae is highly variable, though most members of it resemble true shrikes to some degree.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Large woodshrike Tephrodornis virgatus
    Common woodshrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus
    Bar-winged flycatcher-shrike Hemipus picatus
    Black-winged flycatcher-shrike Hemipus hirundinaceus
    Rufous-winged philentoma Philentoma pyrhoptera
    Maroon-breasted philentoma Philentoma velata

    The ioras are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub, but whereas that group tends to be drab in colouration, ioras are sexually dimorphic, with the males being brightly plumaged in yellows and greens.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Common iora Aegithina tiphia
    Green iora Aegithina viridissima
    Great iora Aegithina lafresnayei

    The fantails are small insectivorous birds with longish, frequently fanned, tails.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Spotted fantail Rhipidura perlata Rare
    Malaysian pied-fantail Rhipidura javanica
    White-throated fantail Rhipidura albicollis
    White-browed fantail Rhipidura aureola

    The drongos are mostly black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright when perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus Resident and winter visitor
    Ashy drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus Resident and winter visitor
    Crow-billed drongo Dicrurus annectens Winter visitor and passage migrant
    Bronzed drongo Dicrurus aeneus
    Lesser racket-tailed drongo Dicrurus remifer
    Hair-crested drongo Dicrurus hottentottus Resident and winter visitor
    Greater racket-tailed drongo Dicrurus paradiseus

    The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines which hunt by gleaning, hovering or flycatching.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Black-naped monarch Hypothymis azurea
    Japanese paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone atrocaudata Rare winter visitor, passage migrant
    Amur paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone incei
    Blyth's paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone affinis Resident and winter visitor

    Until 2018 this species was included in family Corvidae, but genetic and morphological evidence place it in its own family.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Crested shrikejay Platylophus galericulatus

    Shrikes are passerine birds known for the habit of some species of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A shrike's beak is hooked, like that of a typical bird of prey.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Tiger shrike Lanius tigrinus Fairly common passage migrant
    Brown shrike Lanius cristatus Winter visitor
    Burmese shrike Lanius collurioides Winter visitor
    Bay-backed shrike Lanius vittatus Accidental
    Long-tailed shrike Lanius schach Passage migrant
    Gray-backed shrike Lanius tephronotus Winter visitor

    The family Corvidae includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Black magpie Platysmurus leucopterus
    Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius
    Red-billed blue-magpie Urocissa erythrorhyncha
    Common green-magpie Cissa chinensis
    Indochinese green-magpie Cissa hypoleuca
    Rufous treepie Dendrocitta vagabunda
    Gray treepie Dendrocitta formosae
    Racket-tailed treepie Crypsirina temia
    Ratchet-tailed treepie Temnurus temnurus Accidental
    Oriental magpie Pica serica Accidental
    Eurasian magpie Pica pica Accidental
    House crow Corvus splendens Introduced species
    Rook Corvus frugilegus Accidental
    Large-billed crow Corvus macrorhynchos

    The Malaysian rail-babbler is a rail-like passerine bird which inhabits the floor of primary forest in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. It is the only member of its family. The nominate subspecies E. m. macrocerus is found in Thailand. [10]

    Common name Binomial Status
    Malaysian rail-babbler Eupetes macrocerus

    Most of the species of this small family are found in Africa, though a few inhabit tropical Asia. They are not closely related to other birds called "flycatchers".

    Common name Binomial Status
    Yellow-bellied fairy-fantail Chelidorhynx hypoxanthus
    Gray-headed canary-flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis

    The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Fire-capped tit Cephalopyrus flammiceps
    Yellow-browed tit Sylviparus modestus
    Sultan tit Melanochlora sultanea
    Cinereous tit Parus cinereous
    Japanese tit Parus minor
    Yellow-cheeked tit Machlolophus spilonotus

    Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Australasian bushlark Mirafra javanica
    Indochinese bushlark Mirafra erythrocephala
    Greater short-toed lark Calandrella brachydactyla
    Sykes's short-toed lark Calandrella dukhunensis Accidental
    Oriental skylark Alauda gulgula

    The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Common tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius
    Dark-necked tailorbird Orthotomus atrogularis
    Ashy tailorbird Orthotomus ruficeps
    Rufous-tailed tailorbird Orthotomus sericeus
    Brown prinia Prinia polychroa
    Hill prinia Prinia superciliaris
    Rufescent prinia Prinia rufescens
    Gray-breasted prinia Prinia hodgsonii
    Yellow-bellied prinia Prinia flaviventris
    Plain prinia Prinia inornata
    Zitting cisticola Cisticola juncidis
    Golden-headed cisticola Cisticola exilis

    The members of this family are usually rather large for "warblers". Most are rather plain olivaceous brown above with much yellow to beige below. They are usually found in open woodland, reedbeds, or tall grass. The family occurs mostly in southern to western Eurasia and surroundings, but it also ranges far into the Pacific, with some species in Africa.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Thick-billed warbler Arundinax aedon Winter visitor
    Booted warbler Iduna caligata Accidental
    Black-browed reed warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps Winter visitor
    Paddyfield warbler Acrocephalus agricola Rare winter visitor
    Blunt-winged warbler Acrocephalus concinens Winter visitor
    Manchurian reed warbler Acrocephalus tangorum Winter visitor
    Blyth's reed warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum Passage migrant
    Large-billed reed warbler Acrocephalus orinus Rare, rediscovered 2006 [11]
    Oriental reed warbler Acrocephalus orientalis Winter visitor
    Clamorous reed warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus Very rare winter visitor

    Locustellidae are a family of small insectivorous songbirds found mainly in Eurasia, Africa, and the Australian region. They are smallish birds with tails that are usually long and pointed, and tend to be drab brownish or buffy all over.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Striated grassbird Megalurus palustris
    Marsh grassbird Locustella pryeri Accidental
    Pallas's grasshopper-warbler Locustella certhiola Winter visitor
    Lanceolated warbler Locustella lanceolata Winter visitor
    Brown bush warbler Locustella luteoventris Rare winter visitor
    Chinese bush warbler Locustella tacsanowskia Very rare winter visitor
    Baikal bush warbler Locustella davidi Winter visitor
    Spotted bush warbler Locustella thoracica Accidental
    Russet bush warbler Locustella mandelli
    Dalat bush warbler Locustella idonea

    The members of this small family are found in mountainous parts of South and South East Asia.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Pygmy cupwing Pnoepyga pusilla

    The family Hirundinidae is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings, and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.

    Common name Binomial Status
    White-eyed river martin Pseudochelidon sirintarae Endemic, critically endangered [12]
    Gray-throated martin Riparia chinensis
    Bank swallow Riparia riparia Winter visitor
    Pale sand martin Riparia diluta Accidental
    Dusky crag-martin Ptyonoprogne concolor
    Barn swallow Hirundo rustica Winter visitor
    Wire-tailed swallow Hirundo smithii
    Pacific swallow Hirundo tahitica
    Red-rumped swallow Cecropis daurica Winter visitor, local breeder
    Striated swallow Cecropis striolata
    Rufous-bellied swallow Cecropis badia
    Common house-martin Delichon urbicum Rare winter visitor
    Asian house-martin Delichon dasypus Winter visitor
    Nepal house-martin Delichon nipalensis One record

    Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red, or orange vents, cheeks, throats, or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Black-and-white bulbul Brachypodius melanoleucos Rare
    Puff-backed bulbul Brachypodius eutilotus
    Black-headed bulbul Brachypodius atriceps
    Spectacled bulbul Rubigula erythropthalmos
    Gray-bellied bulbul Rubigula cyaniventris
    Scaly-breasted bulbul Rubigula squamata
    Black-crested bulbul Rubigula flaviventris
    Crested finchbill Spizixos canifrons
    Straw-headed bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus Rare, Critically endangered
    Striated bulbul Pycnonotus striatus
    Red-vented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer Accidental
    Red-whiskered bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus
    Brown-breasted bulbul Pycnonotus xanthorrhous
    Light-vented bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis
    Sooty-headed bulbul Pycnonotus aurigaster
    Stripe-throated bulbul Pycnonotus finlaysoni
    Flavescent bulbul Pycnonotus flavescens
    Yellow-vented bulbul Pycnonotus goiavier
    Olive-winged bulbul Pycnonotus plumosus
    Ayeyarwady bulbul Pycnonotus blanfordi
    Streak-eared bulbul Pycnonotus conradi
    Cream-vented bulbul Pycnonotus simplex
    Red-eyed bulbul Pycnonotus brunneus
    Hairy-backed bulbul Tricholestes criniger
    Finsch's bulbul Alophoixus finschii
    White-throated bulbul Alophoixus flaveolus
    Puff-throated bulbul Alophoixus pallidus
    Ochraceous bulbul Alophoixus ochraceus
    Gray-cheeked bulbul Alophoixus bres
    Yellow-bellied bulbul Alophoixus phaeocephalus
    Buff-vented bulbul Iole crypta
    Gray-eyed bulbul Iole propinqua
    Olive bulbul Iole virescens
    Black bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus Resident and winter visitor
    White-headed bulbul Hypsipetes thompsoni
    Ashy bulbul Hemixos flavala
    Cinereous bulbul Hemixos cinereus
    Chestnut bulbul Hemixos castanonotus Accidental
    Mountain bulbul Ixos mcclellandii
    Streaked bulbul Ixos malaccensis

    Leaf warblers are a family of small insectivorous birds found mostly in Eurasia and ranging into Wallacea and Africa. The species are of various sizes, often green-plumaged above and yellow below, or more subdued with greyish-green to greyish-brown colours.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Ashy-throated warbler Phylloscopus maculipennis Winter visitor
    Buff-barred warbler Phylloscopus pulcher Winter visitor
    Yellow-browed warbler Phylloscopus inornatus Winter visitor
    Hume's warbler Phylloscopus humei Winter visitor
    Chinese leaf warbler Phylloscopus yunnanensis Winter visitor
    Pallas's leaf warbler Phylloscopus proregulus Winter visitor
    Sichuan leaf warbler Phylloscopus forresti
    Radde's warbler Phylloscopus schwarzi Winter visitor
    Yellow-streaked warbler Phylloscopus armandii Winter visitor
    Tickell's leaf warbler Phylloscopus affinis Winter visitor
    Dusky warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus Winter visitor
    Buff-throated warbler Phylloscopus subaffinis Winter visitor
    Common chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita Accidental
    Eastern crowned warbler Phylloscopus coronatus Winter and passage visitor
    Gray-cheeked warbler Phylloscopus poliogenys
    Gray-crowned warbler Phylloscopus tephrocephalus Rare winter visitor
    Whistler's warbler Phylloscopus whistleri
    Bianchi's warbler Phylloscopus valentini Winter visitor
    Martens's warbler Phylloscopus omeiensis Winter visitor
    Alström's warbler Phylloscopus soror Winter visitor
    Greenish warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides Winter visitor
    Two-barred warbler Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus Winter visitor
    Large-billed leaf warbler Phylloscopus magnirostris Winter visitor
    Pale-legged leaf warbler Phylloscopus tenellipes Winter visitor
    Sakhalin leaf warbler Phylloscopus borealoides
    Japanese leaf warbler Phylloscopus xanthodryas Accidental
    Arctic warbler Phylloscopus borealis Winter and passage visitor
    Kamchatka leaf warbler Phylloscopus examinandus
    Chestnut-crowned warbler Phylloscopus castaniceps
    Yellow-vented warbler Phylloscopus cantator Rare winter visitor
    Sulphur-breasted warbler Phylloscopus ricketti Winter visitor
    Blyth's leaf warbler Phylloscopus reguloides Winter visitor
    Claudia's leaf warbler Phylloscopus claudiae Winter visitor
    Hartert's leaf warbler Phylloscopus goodsoni Accidental
    Davison's leaf warbler Phylloscopus intensior
    Kloss's leaf warbler Phylloscopus ogilviegranti
    Mountain leaf warbler Phylloscopus trivirgatus Accidental

    The members of this family are found throughout Africa, Asia, and Polynesia. Their taxonomy is in flux, and some authorities place some genera in other families. [13]

    Common name Binomial Status
    Pale-footed bush warbler Urosphena pallidipes
    Asian stubtail Urosphena squameiceps Winter visitor
    Gray-bellied tesia Tesia cyaniventer Very rare
    Slaty-bellied tesia Tesia olivea
    Chestnut-crowned bush warbler Cettia major Very rare winter visitor
    Chestnut-headed tesia Cettia castaneocoronata
    Yellow-bellied warbler Abroscopus superciliaris
    Rufous-faced warbler Abroscopus albogularis Rare
    Mountain tailorbird Phyllergetes cuculatus
    Manchurian bush warbler Horornis canturians Rare winter visitor
    Sunda bush warbler Horornis vulcanius
    Aberrant bush warbler Horornis flavolivacea Winter visitor

    Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet which includes insects.

    The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as another common name (Old World warblers) implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Lesser whitethroat Sylvia curruca Rare winter visitor
    Yellow-eyed babbler Chrysomma sinense
    Gray-headed parrotbill Psittiparus gularis
    Rufous-headed parrotbill Psittiparus bakeri Accidental
    Spot-breasted parrotbill Paradoxornis guttaticollis
    Pale-billed parrotbill Chleuasicus atrosuperciliaris Rare
    Black-throated parrotbill Suthola nipalensis
    Short-tailed parrotbill Neosuthora davidiana Rare

    The white-eyes are small birds of rather drab appearance, the plumage above being typically greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast, or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As the name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Striated yuhina Yuhina castaniceps
    Indochinese yuhina Yuhina torqueola
    Whiskered yuhina Yuhina flavicollis
    Burmese yuhina Yuhina humilis
    Chestnut-flanked white-eye Zosterops erythropleurus Winter visitor
    Indian white-eye Zosterops palpebrosus
    Hume's white-eye Zosterops auriventer
    Swinhoe's white-eye Zosterops simplex

    The members of this family are somewhat diverse in size and colouration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Chestnut-capped babbler Timalia pileata
    Pin-striped tit-babbler Mixornis gularis
    Fluffy-backed tit-babbler Macronus ptilosus Rare, much reduced
    Golden babbler Cyanoderma chrysaeum
    Chestnut-winged babbler Cyanoderma erythropterum
    Buff-chested babbler Cyanoderma ambiguum
    Rufous-fronted babbler Cyanoderma rufifrons
    Long-tailed wren-babbler Spelaeornis chocolatinus Accidental
    Gray-bellied wren-babbler Spelaeornis reptatus
    Red-billed scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps
    Coral-billed scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus ferruginosus Rare
    White-browed scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus schisticeps
    Chestnut-backed scimitar-babbler Pomatorhinus montanus Accidental
    Large scimitar-babbler Megapomatorhinus hypoleucos
    Rusty-cheeked scimitar-babbler Megapomatorhinus erythrogenys
    Black-throated babbler Stachyris nigricollis
    Chestnut-rumped babbler Stachyris maculata
    Gray-throated babbler Stachyris nigriceps
    Gray-headed babbler Stachyris poliocephala
    White-necked babbler Stachyris leucotis Rare
    Spot-necked babbler Stachyris strialata

    These small to medium-sized songbirds have soft fluffy plumage but are otherwise rather diverse. Members of the genus Illadopsis are found in forests, but some other genera are birds of scrublands.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Moustached babbler Malacopteron magnirostre
    Sooty-capped babbler Malacopteron affine Rare
    Scaly-crowned babbler Malacopteron cinereum
    Rufous-crowned babbler Malacopteron magnum
    Collared babbler Gampsorhynchus torquatus
    Rufous-winged fulvetta Schoeniparus castaneceps
    Rufous-throated fulvetta Schoeniparus rufogularis Rare
    Rusty-capped fulvetta Schoeniparus dubius Accidental
    Puff-throated babbler Pellorneum ruficeps
    Black-capped babbler Pellorneum capistratum
    Spot-throated babbler Pellorneum albiventre
    Buff-breasted babbler Pellorneum tickelli
    Short-tailed babbler Pellorneum malaccense
    White-chested babbler Pellorneum rostratum
    Ferruginous babbler Pellorneum bicolor
    Striped wren-babbler Kenopia striata Rare
    Eyebrowed wren-babbler Napothera epilepidota
    Abbott's babbler Turdinus abbotti
    Horsfield's babbler Turdinus sepiarius
    Large wren-babbler Turdinus macrodactylus
    Limestone wren-babbler Turdinus crispifrons
    Streaked wren-babbler Turdinus brevicaudatus
    Chinese grassbird Graminicola striatus Extirpated

    The members of this family are diverse in size and colouration, though those of genus Turdoides tend to be brown or greyish. The family is found in Africa, India, and southeast Asia.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Brown fulvetta Alcippe brunneicauda
    Brown-cheeked fulvetta Alcippe poioicephala
    Yunnan fulvetta Alcippe fratercula
    Mountain fulvetta Alcippe peracensis
    Black-browed fulvetta Alcippe grotei
    Himalayan cutia Cutia nipalensis Rare
    White-crested laughingthrush Garrulax leucolophus
    Lesser necklaced laughingthrush Garrulax monileger
    Black laughingthrush Garrulax lugubris Rare in far south
    Cambodian laughingthrush Garrulax ferrarius
    White-necked laughingthrush Garrulax strepitans
    Spot-breasted laughingthrush Garrulax merulinus Very rare
    Greater necklaced laughingthrush Ianthocincla pectoralis
    Black-throated laughingthrush Ianthocincla chinensis
    Chestnut-capped laughingthrush Ianthocincla mitrata Rare in far south
    White-browed laughingthrush Ianthocincla sannio
    Silver-eared laughingthrush Trochalopteron melanostigma
    Malayan laughingthrush Trochalopteron peninsulae
    Red-tailed laughingthrush Trochalopteron milnei Rare
    Black-backed sibia Heterophasia melanoleuca
    Long-tailed sibia Heterophasia picaoides
    Silver-eared mesia Leiothrix argentauris
    Rufous-backed sibia Minla annectens
    Scarlet-faced liocichla Liocichla ripponi
    Spectacled barwing Actinodura ramsayi
    Blue-winged minla Actinodura cyanouroptera
    Chestnut-tailed minla Actinodura strigula

    The wallcreeper is the only member of its family. It inhabits the high mountains of Eurasia from southern Europe to central China.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria Accidental

    Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails, and powerful bills and feet.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Chestnut-bellied nuthatch Sitta cinnamoventris
    Burmese nuthatch Sitta neglecta
    Chestnut-vented nuthatch Sitta nagaensis
    Velvet-fronted nuthatch Sitta frontalis
    Blue nuthatch Sitta azurea Accidental
    Giant nuthatch Sitta magna Endangered
    Beautiful nuthatch Sitta formosa

    Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Hume's treecreeper Certhia manipurensis

    This species, the only one in its family, inhabits forest undergrowth throughout South East Asia.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Spotted elachura Elachura formosa

    Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Brown dipper Cinclus pallasii Rare non-breeding visitor

    Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Asian glossy starling Aplonis panayensis
    Golden-crested myna Ampeliceps coronatus
    Common hill myna Gracula religiosa
    European starling Sturnus vulgaris Rare winter visitor
    Rosy starling Pastor roseus Very rare winter visitor
    Daurian starling Agropsar sturninus Resident and passage visitor
    Chestnut-cheeked starling Agropsar philippensis Accidental
    Black-collared starling Gracupica nigricollis
    Asian pied starling Gracupica contra
    White-shouldered starling Sturnia sinensis Winter visitor
    Brahminy starling Sturnia pagodarum Accidental
    Chestnut-tailed starling Sturnia malabarica Resident and winter visitor
    Red-billed starling Spodiopsar sericeus Accidental
    White-cheeked starling Spodiopsar cineraceus Accidental
    Common myna Acridotheres tristis Range expansion through introductions [5]
    Vinous-breasted starling Acridotheres burmannicus
    Jungle myna Acridotheres fuscus
    Javan myna Acridotheres javanicus Introduced
    Great myna Acridotheres grandis
    Crested myna Acridotheres cristatellus
    Spot-winged starling Saroglossa spilopterus Rare winter visitor

    The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.

    Common name Binomial Status
    Long-tailed thrush Zoothera dixoni Winter visitor
    Himalayan thrush Zoothera salimalii Winter visitor
    Dark-sided thrush Zoothera marginata
    White's thrush Zoothera aurea
    Scaly thrush Zoothera dauma Winter visitor, resident in mountains
    Purple cochoa Cochoa purpurea Rare
    Green cochoa Cochoa viridis
    Siberian thrush Geokichla sibirica Winter visitor
    Chestnut-capped thrush Geokichla interpres Rare
    Orange-headed thrush Geokichla citrina Winter visitor
    Chinese blackbird Turdus mandarinus
    Gray-winged blackbird Turdus boulboul Rare winter visitor
    Japanese thrush Turdus cardis Accidental
    Black-breasted thrush Turdus dissimilis Rare winter visitor
    Gray-sided thrush Turdus feae Rare winter visitor
    Eyebrowed thrush Turdus obscurus Winter visitor
    Chestnut thrush Turdus rubrocanus Rare winter visitor
    Black-throated thrush Turdus atrogularis Very rare winter visitor
    Red-throated thrush Turdus ruficollis Very rare winter visitor
    Dusky thrush Turdus eunomus Irruptive in winter
    Naumann's thrush Turdus naumanni Accidental

    Old World flycatchers are a large group of small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.


    USGS Wild Bird Avian Influenza Program – Studies from Endemic Regions of Eurasia

    This project focuses on tracking wild birds throughout Eurasia via satellite telemetry to better understand their spatiotemporal movement patterns, relationship to domestic birds, and potential role in the spread, persistence, and amplification of avian influenza viruses.

    The Challenge: Following outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Eurasia, many researchers have attempted to determine how this virus spreads across the landscape. Unfortunately, prior to this work, most studies on HPAI movements were based on virology data alone, with no information on host ecology. Beginning in 2007, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) and Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) developed a Wild Bird Avian Influenza Program to improve the scientific understanding of the role wild bird’s play in the circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    In collaboration with Glenn Olsen at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, USGS Western Ecological Research Center & USGS Alaska science Center

    The Science: Our research began with marking waterfowl species from Qinghai Lake, China, with satellite telemetry units to understand movement patterns and exposure to poultry and virus risk factors. In an expanded partnership with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and multiple local partners, we have marked more than 650 waterfowl of 24 species within HPAI zones of persistence. The work spans 11 countries and the 4 main flyways of Eurasia (East African – West Asian, Black Sea - Mediterranean, Central Asian, and East Asian flyway). Using remote sensing, spatial, and statistical approaches we have modeled H5N1 transmission risk between wild and domestic bird populations, incorporating uncertainty within the modeling process. Our studies provide new information that counters some hypothesized movements proposed in prior studies and stress the need for a combined approach of virology and ecology of wild host species.

    The Future: This study has, and will continue to, provide valuable insight into risk factors for the spread of HPAI, and the role wild bird’s play in transmitting such viruses across the landscape. By continuing to increase and analyze this data set we hope to provide researchers with a better understanding of this emerging issue.


    A medium-sized goose with a hefty bill and long, thick neck. Juveniles are slightly smaller than adults in the fall, and this can be noticeable in flocks during fall and early winter.

    Relative Size

    goose-sized or larger

    Measurements
    • Both Sexes
      • Length: 27.2-32.7 in (69-83 cm)
      • Weight: 56.4-116.4 oz (1600-3300 g)
      • Wingspan: 54.3 in (138 cm)

      The Snow Goose is a white-bodied goose with black wingtips that are barely visible on the ground but noticeable in flight. The pink bill has a dark line along it, often called a "grinning patch" or "black lips." You may also see dark morph Snow Geese, or "Blue Geese," with a white face, dark brown body, and white under the tail.

      Snow Geese don’t like to travel without the company of another couple dozen geese and can form flocks of several hundred thousand. Family groups forage together on wintering grounds, digging up roots and tubers from muddy fields and marshes. In flight, they are steady on the wing with even wingbeats.

      Snow Geese adapted quickly to use agricultural fields, which is one reason their populations are doing so well. During winter and migration, look for them in plowed cornfields or wetlands. Also check lakes, ponds, and marshes where they roost and bathe along shorelines and in open water. Snow Geese breed on Arctic tundra.


      The pace of past climate change vs. potential bird distributions and land use in the United States

      Climate change may drastically alter patterns of species distributions and richness, but predicting future species patterns in occurrence is challenging. Significant shifts in distributions have already been observed, and understanding these recent changes can improve our understanding of potential future changes. We assessed how past climate change affected potential breeding distributions for landbird species in the conterminous United States. We quantified the bioclimatic velocity of potential breeding distributions, that is, the pace and direction of change for each species’ suitable climate space over the past 60 years. We found that potential breeding distributions for landbirds have shifted substantially with an average velocity of 1.27 km yr −1 , about double the pace of prior distribution shift estimates across terrestrial systems globally (0.61 km yr −1 ). The direction of shifts was not uniform. The majority of species’ distributions shifted west, northwest, and north. Multidirectional shifts suggest that changes in climate conditions beyond mean temperature were influencing distributional changes. Indeed, precipitation variables that were proxies for extreme conditions were important variables across all models. There were winners and losers in terms of the area of distributions many species experienced contractions along west and east distribution edges, and expansions along northern distribution edges. Changes were also reflected in the potential species richness, with some regions potentially gaining species (Midwest, East) and other areas potentially losing species (Southwest). However, the degree to which changes in potential breeding distributions are manifested in actual species richness depends on landcover. Areas that have become increasingly suitable for breeding birds due to changing climate are often those attractive to humans for agriculture and development. This suggests that many areas might have supported more breeding bird species had the landscape not been altered. Our study illustrates that climate change is not only a future threat, but something birds are already experiencing.

      Filename Description
      gcb13154-sup-0001-FigureS1.tifimage/tif, 12.1 MB Figure S1. Maps representing each month within the year of 2011 and the 2011 annual average for (a) Fox Sparrow and (b) Northern Cardinal and annual averages for the years 1981, 1991, 2001, and 2011 and decade based summary map for 2000–2011 for (c) Fox Sparrow and (d) Northern Cardinal.
      gcb13154-sup-0002-FigureS2.tifimage/tif, 1.2 MB Figure S2. Species richness maps for 285 breeding US landbird species for the period of 2000 to 2011 representing (a) estimated Species Richness (COMDYN richness) from BBS routes 2000–2012 and b) potential species richness from model outputs. Potential species richness is defined as the number of species that have suitable climate within a given grid cell.
      gcb13154-sup-0003-TableS1.csvCSV document, 137.3 KB Table S1. Detailed data for each species for which models converged, listing each species’ AOU numeric code, scientific name, common name, the number of occurrences used in model training, migratory habit, feeding guild, and location of foraging.

      Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.


      Watch the video: Τα πουλιά του Αξιού-Παρυδάτιο (August 2022).