4.9: Putting It Together- Important Biological Macromolecules - Biology

4.9: Putting It Together- Important Biological Macromolecules - Biology

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Watch This Video

A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Now that we’ve learned about the different macromolecules our bodies need and use, let’s return to our the questions we asked at the beginning of the chapter about healthy diets:

Think about It

  • Is it even possible for a person to cut all carbs out of his or her diet?
  • Is it actually healthy to remove an entire class of molecules from the diet?
  • Fats and cholesterol are strictly bad—right?

[practice-area rows=”4″][/practice-area]
[reveal-answer q=”193414″]See Our Thoughts[/reveal-answer]
[hidden-answer a=”193414″]

It is, in fact, impossible to have a no carb or no fat diet. These molecules are in all cells and cells makes up what we eat. More importantly though, each of these biological macromolecules has a very important role to play. If you cut too much fat from your diet, for example, it is possible for your fat stores dip low enough that your hair will fall out!

Even the much maligned cholesterol is a requirement for a healthy body and lifestyle: without sufficient cholesterol, your body doesn’t make enough sex hormones (estrogen or testosterone depending on if you’re male or female). The trick is to make healthy choices overall without too much of any biological macromolecules—after all, there can certainly be too much of a good thing.


Biology and biogenesis of shed microvesicles

The ability of cells to transmit bioactive molecules to recipient cells and the extracellular environment is a fundamental requirement for both normal physiology and disease pathogenesis. It has traditionally been thought that soluble factors released from cells were responsible for this cellular signaling but recent research has revealed a fundamental role for microvesicles in this process. Microvesicles are heterogeneous membrane-bound sacs that are shed from the surface of cells into the extracellular environment in a highly regulated process. They are shed following the selective incorporation of a host of molecular cargo including multiple types of proteins and nucleic acids. In addition to providing new insight into the etiology of complex human diseases, microvesicles also show great promise as a tool for advanced diagnosis and therapy as we move forward into a new age of personalized medicine. Here we review current status of the rapidly evolving field of microvesicle biology, highlighting critical regulatory roles for several small GTPases in the biology and biogenesis of shed microvesicles.

4.9: Putting It Together- Important Biological Macromolecules - Biology

>endstream endobj 12 0 obj > stream Gat=k9lh45&KXQnK2krmT)d(f6l]BfM7=([email protected]?*Ho[2ES4At[#Uhc:,@-:A9Pm.(1Xha][email protected]^M5`:nAFebCdlF7.=(TP'/%@J6+EYH9])'2l$2iK4Q?7G.]'*m$:46Ak*]Z[,0(p_s0^&?kb,ag6Q?fuj+BZjdTfWu6r'U0o#CuPgSQSRe*T/ccLgB] l&_Ee_6 )3HX?:^@kI-$5Rb1Qc:[email protected]/E8,R?4I>X*).uRZnM)aK9mC LG(D AO92,loBLf7K78ipKRB4uJfp[6_$di3uUnJ8Rdl:9H=R3!qDm$hPk(6F*S1,BG04X!R"t7%9 [email protected]%O*IOS>[email protected]%rj7a.Ao:lijacPZ^Y+,Z(CpJ3dQkidb1ebb4%Vhs,O,M"F o&/r=NeW3eMVgQRQucL9/`pHr3b'r1IKXK_YcI0TN?ICgs)[email protected]: mAI,5oj]"!OjQ"P(=)[email protected]$ 'Cb.hF^T#D+0ujWg:HSrAXc2Ee?3\__HZ1Rm[fK5`n'n#8(fT?+_36]n)Me?rfZg8J()&[Z

>endstream endobj 13 0 obj > stream GasJLbt>o>&9M']L1NQ3V6p412a6,"i6,_p]/uXer p`m2ZB5.`g%4+0)A*RV'W-YrM%M-oEpW%#dOq^a)M88)3>cGu#+Im?NPC0+*^Y:&A74=&B$MqdJR9ia_!)13_5GpOjE:*Q#k5S(APY`8IgJpr?drbIc:Ver$IhhdI

>endstream endobj 14 0 obj > endobj xref 0 15 0000000000 65535 f 0000000075 00000 n 0000000109 00000 n 0000000219 00000 n 0000000427 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000000843 00000 n 0000001051 00000 n 0000001139 00000 n 0000001426 00000 n 0000001506 00000 n 0000003189 00000 n 0000004832 00000 n 0000006368 00000 n 0000006756 00000 n trailer > startxref 6806 %%EOF

Panel 2- recent advance in otitis media bioinformatics ☆

To update the medical literature on recent large-scale studies employing bioinformatics data analysis tools in otitis media (OM) disease models with a principal focus on developments in the past 5 years.

Data sources

Pubmed indexed peer-reviewed articles.

Review methods

Comprehensive review of the literature using the following search terms: ‘genomics, inflammasome, microRNA, proteomics, transcriptome, bioinformatics’ with the term ‘otitis media’, and ‘middle ear’. Included articles published in the English language from January 1, 2015–April 1, 2019.

Implications for practice

Large scale bioinformatics tools over the past five years lend credence to the paradigm of innate immune response playing a critical role in host defense against bacteria contributing to Otitis Media (OM) progression from acute to chronic. In total, genomic, miRNAomic, and proteomic analyses all point to the need for a tightly regulated innate immune and inflammatory response in the middle ear. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategies to control immunopathology and tissue damage, improve hearing and enhance host defense for both acute and chronic OM based on full understanding of the basic molecular pathogenesis of OM.

Nuclear Decay

2.10 Radionuclide Characteristics

Reliable data on radionuclide characteristics can be found in many references such as Vértes et al. (2011) and Masterson (2017) . The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) gives data on nuclear structure and decay properties of known nuclides through an interactive chart of the nuclides provided as a friendly graphical interface ( IAEA, 2018 ). Important characteristics of the radionuclides which are often present in radioactive wastes are given in Table 2.3 . It shows radionuclide decay modes which include α and β emission, EC, isomeric transition to a lower energy and SPF. Table 2.3 also gives the major radiation energies in MeV/disintegration for the total electron (ε), gamma and X-ray photon (γ) emissions and the sum of the average energies (termed Q-values) for different radiation types in MeV/disintegration or W/Ci, which includes alpha and beta particles, discrete electrons and photons. The Q-value indicates the amount of energy that could be deposited in the form of heat in a radioactive material from each decay event if none of the radiation escaped from the material (neutrinos are not included). Problems with particular radionuclides present in nuclear waste arise from their ability to deliver high doses associated with long radioactive half-lives, high radiotoxicity (e.g. from α particle or high energy β emission), high mobility, ease of assimilation and long residence times in living organisms (e.g. long biological half-lives which are defined as the necessary periods of time to evacuate a half of absorbed elements from the organism).

Table 2.3 . Characteristics of some radionuclides

EC, Electron capture IT, isomeric transition SPF, spontaneous fission.

MT2 10.19

2 forces at work:
1. chemical: if more of an object on one side of membrane than other: force through diffusion if can pass through to equalize the number of objects on both side of the gradient
2. electro: difference in charge - force that drives the charged particle across the membrane to balance charge

electrochemical gradient can be maintained in way where it's like a battery: collected up & can dissipate it!

cells maintain high solute concentrations - if increase solute conc., simultaneously decreasing water conc.

pressure generated by water can sometimes be problematic

- motive force of water to go from liquid in blood to the cell

- as water flows in (hypotonic), will make cell swell & lyse (blow up) (if conc. of water is lower, hypertonic - tend to shrink): keep conc. of solutes in blood stream such that in normal range such that normal passage of water back & forth is equal (to maintain its shape)

- not only way - isotonic conditions: regulate solute conc. outside of cells so maintain a particular shape

moving ions & molecules across membranes from lower to higher concentrations (won't happen spontaneously, requires energy input!) (not all movement is in direction of gradient - not always diffusion)

ex: sodium-potassium pump (maintains resting potential of neurons) (primary active transport)
- in resting neuron, high [Na+] outside cellular membrane, high [K+] inside
- maintained by pumping K+ into cell & Na+ out of cell
- this requires energy (ATP) - active process!!
- KEY POINT(. ): works through tipping carrier proteins, but the tipping is driven by
1) taking ATP & putting phosphate on the protein (1 to 2): this drives the tip (pushes ion across channel across the gradient) (energy from change in conformation of protein)
2) take phosphate off channel protein, flips back from 3 to 4
- can push against gradient - conformational change = energetically favorable
- same principle, but it's the change in confirmation of protein that's pushing the movement of the atom/molecule across the gradient, rather than conc. (high -> low) across the gradient!

find much more variation in prokaryotes than eukaryotes

prokaryotes = smaller cells (

10-100x smaller than eukaryotes), lack internal membrane systems (no nucleus / organelles), no histones - nucleoid

2. "doors"
- specialized openings in membranes between organelles that allow them to pass inside the cell
- ex1: nuclear pore complex
- ex2: channels through ER membrane (where proteins translated actively into the ER lumen)

- each protein has a specific AA sequence
- add sequence - binding place for protein to drag particular protein to bind (can drive process)

ex of "zip codes" to drive localizations
1. nuclear localization signal = type of short AA sequence (*MEMORIZE THIS!!*)
- where protein - "importins" - import the protein into the nucleus! (nuclear localization signal)
- binds to it in protein, pulls it into nucleus so can be active at proper localization

a pore = opening between cytoplasm & nucleus, in this case, or other organelles

selective pore allows certain passage of larger molecules through

when importin bound to protein gets to pore, gets permission to enter, pulls protein (ex: histone) into the organelle (ex: nucleus)

important for all types of proteins that are secreted from the cell (go out of cell - like insulin into the blood stream, then membrane proteins - transmembrane - synthesized right into the ER)

actual ribosomes always located in cytoplasm, but something else happens!

when ribosome starts to translate a specific peptide that has signal on it that tells the cellular machinery it belongs in the ER, the ribosome as it's translating gets attached to ER membrane through a channel that's made through a membrane, protein is translated directly through the membrane into the ER
- proteins that are going to be in the nucleus / cytoplasm / mitochondria / etc. are translated by ribosomes free in the cytoplasm
- proteins that are going to be in membranes / going to be excreted from the cell / etc. are going to be in other specific organelles (like lysosomes) are translated through the ER membrane right into the lumen / inside the ER

signal sequence targets machinery to pull it over so ribosome attaches to ER - generates bumps on ER - the rough ER - bumps = ribosomes that are translating into the inside / lumen through the channel into the lumen of the ER or membrane of the ER if it's a transmembrane protein (where it's then localized)

(connected membrane systems)

ex: insulin is first synthesized as proinsulin, but then gets cleaved into fully active insulin once taken outside of the cell

1. all proteins synthesized in the ER

2. way proteins move back & forth between different areas is a 2 way street:
- move protein from ER & fuse outside (release outside) (exocytosis)
- bring protein in from outside (endocytosis), take through membrane system, pass it from one thing to another, & break it down inside the cell
- often broken down into their parts in the lysosome

2. kinetic (expressed) energy
- shape change, location change
- ex: breaking chemical bonds
- ex: moving those ions across the membrane to lower that concentration differential

SO organic molecules converted into inorganic molecules (converting one type of bond into another)
- effect: release energy (going to lower energy state overall, so energy released as heat while converting)
- energy released in reaction as making new C-O and H-O bonds

if do reverse reaction (converting from inorganic to organic molecules), you're generating more C-C and C-H bonds and thus need to invest energy to convert in this direction!

ex: CO2 + H2O ->/<- H2CO3
- formation of bonds
- if go in forward direction, the C-O double bond and H-O single bond in CO2 and H2O are broken, and then there's rearrangement so that there's 1 new O-H bond and one new C-O bond
- this reaction is reversible (double arrrow ->/<-)
- forward reaction occurs in capillaries
- reverse reaction occurs in lungs

Energy in system (enthalpy) = Gibbs free energy + entropy*temperature
H = G + S*T

part of a reaction comes as heat (increases movement of molecules)
heat = definition for molecular motion (more heat, more random)
change invested to do work (generates peptide bond)

energy in system (enthalpy) = capacity to do work (Gibbs free energy, G) + entropy*Temp

in a reaction, how does each value change? subtract (∆)

∆G = ∆H - T∆S
- G = Gibbs free energy (part of energy that could be used in a reaction)
- H = enthalpy (available energy/chemical bond energy)
- T = temperature (K)
- S = entropy

∆G determines whether a process will occur spontaneously
- if ∆G<0 (negative), the reaction is spontaneous!!
- if ∆G>0 (positive), the reaction is non spontaneous!!

if have -∆G (∆G<0) means that more work COMES OUT of the reaction than goes in (spontaneous = exergonic)
- spontaneous = way of predicting whether something will happen in cell under biological conditions
- exergonic = spontaneous, won't violate laws of thermodynamics, will occur spontaneously

so both reactions happen together
when 2 things linked together in some form, the sum of the 2 reactions controls whether or not its overall spontaneous or not!

ex: bicycle wheel by itself can't go uphill, but when wheel linked by chain to foot, able to move uphill

how relates to bio: linking 2 things together
- larger -∆G with a smaller +∆G: overall sum = negative number &reaction becomes spontaneous (KEY. )

Metabolism is the set of biochemical reactions that transforms biomolecules and transfers energy.

Organisms can be grouped according to their source of energy: Phototrophs obtain energy from sunlight and chemotrophs obtain energy from chemical compounds, and according to the source of carbon they use to build organic molecules: Heterotrophs obtain carbon from organic molecules, and autotrophs obtain carbon from inorganic sources, such as carbon dioxide.

Catabolism is the set of reactions that break down molecules and release energy, and anabolism is the set of reactions that build molecules and require energy.

Kinetic energy is energy of motion. Potential energy is stored energy it depends on the structure of an object or its position relative to its surroundings. Chemical energy is a form of potential energy held in the bonds of molecules.

The laws of thermodynamics govern energy flow in biological systems. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. The second law of thermodynamics states that there is an increase in entropy in the universe over time.

Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of bonds. Here, atoms themselves do not change, but which atoms are linked to each other changes, forming new molecules.

The direction of a chemical reaction is influenced by the concentration of reactants and products.

Gibbs free energy (G) is the amount of energy available to do work. Three thermodynamic parameters define a chemical reaction: Gibbs free energy (G), enthalpy (H), and entropy (S). Exergonic reactions are spontaneous (ΔG < 0) and release energy. Endergonic reactions are non-spontaneous (ΔG > 0) and require energy. The change of free energy in a chemical reaction is described by ΔG = ΔH - TΔS.

Organisms can be grouped according to their source of energy: Phototrophs obtain energy from sunlight and chemotrophs obtain energy from chemical compounds, and according to the source of carbon they use to build organic molecules: Heterotrophs obtain carbon from organic molecules, and autotrophs obtain carbon from inorganic sources, such as carbon dioxide.

Catabolism is the set of reactions that break down molecules and release energy, and anabolism is the set of reactions that build molecules and require energy.

Kinetic energy is energy of motion. Potential energy is stored energy it depends on the structure of an object or its position relative to its surroundings. Chemical energy is a form of potential energy held in the bonds of molecules.

The laws of thermodynamics govern energy flow in biological systems. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. The second law of thermodynamics states that there is an increase in entropy in the universe over time.

Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of bonds. Here, atoms themselves do not change, but which atoms are linked to each other changes, forming new molecules.

The direction of a chemical reaction is influenced by the concentration of reactants and products.

Gibbs free energy (G) is the amount of energy available to do work. Three thermodynamic parameters define a chemical reaction: Gibbs free energy (G), enthalpy (H), and entropy (S). Exergonic reactions are spontaneous (ΔG < 0) and release energy. Endergonic reactions are non-spontaneous (ΔG > 0) and require energy. The change of free energy in a chemical reaction is described by ΔG = ΔH - TΔS.

Robban A. Sica, MD graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Toledo and received her doctorate from the Medical College of Ohio. Dr. Sica is the founder, president, and medical director of an innovative and very successful integrative practice of natural and alternative medicine, The Center for the Healing Arts, PC in Orange, CT. Since 1992, Dr. Sica and her affiliated clinical staff maintain a high standard of delivering truly integrative and preventive medicine and are dedicated to development of a new model for medical practice. Years of passionate study evolved into Dr. Sica’s integrative approach which is a successful model for assessing and addressing the patient’s health conditions by identifying underlying stressors originating from all aspects: spiritual, emotional, physical, and social. Dr. Sica successfully integrates her background study including holistic medicine, anti-aging, natural hormone replacement and endocrine problems, nutrition/vitamin supplementation including natural alternatives to medication, allergies and environmental medicine, heavy metal toxicity, chelation therapy, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and treatment of chronic illnesses. Dr. Sica has received certifications in Integrative, Holistic Medicine, Longevity Medicine and Clinical Metal Toxicology. She is President of the International College of Integrative Medicine and Secretary of the American Association for Health Freedom, and Vice President of the Connecticut Health Freedom Coalition. She was formerly the secretary of the American Board of Clinical Metal Toxicology and a member of the Board of Directors of the American College for Advancement in Medicine.

Accomplishments and Accolades:

  • The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.
    • Degree:Bachelor of Arts in Biology, 1979.

    Honors: Graduated Magna cum Laude, Honors Program, Phi Kappa Phi

    Honor Society, Alpha Epsilon Delta Premedical Honorary Society.

    • Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, Ohio.
      • Degree:Doctor of Medicine, 1982 with Honors
      • Natural Health Advocate Award from Alliance for Natural Health, April 8, 2011.


      • Internship in Medicine, (1982-83). St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, CT. Rotations in medicine, neurology, and critical care.
      • Residency in Psychiatry, (1983-85). The Institute of Living, Hartford, CT.

      Experience in short and long term inpatient treatment, outpatient therapy, child psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, descriptive diagnosis, child psychiatry, family therapy.

      • Training in Environmental Medicine, from the American Academy of Environmental Medicine and at the Environmental Health Center – Dallas (1991-92).
      • Comprehensive Physician Training in Innovative Protocols for Treating Chronic Diseases, AMESPA, August 2006.
      • Continuing Medical Education courses (greater than 60 hours annually: see below.)


      • BioEnergetic Synchronization Technique (BEST) Personal & Professional Training 2011-2012.
      • Bartmann Business Institute: Basic and Advanced Coursework, 2009
      • Chet Holmes Institute’s Business Growth Masters Series, 2009.
      • Christine Comaford’s Results Now Webinars and Seminars, 2009.
      • Peak Potentials 3 Year Quantum Leap Program: including coursework on business development, marketing, management, developing successful training programs, and leadership skills. 2008-present.
      • Joel Bauer’s Passion 2 Profit seminar, July 2009.
      • Formula 5 Marketing Modules.
      • Anthony Robbins’ Mastery University: 1997, Laguna Cliffs, CA and Kona, Hawaii.
      • Sedona Training Associates Coursework.
      • Interface Holistic Studies Program, Boston, Mass. (1984-85). Courses and supervision in Individual and Group Psychotherapy, Psychosynthesis, Body/Mind Therapies, and Integrative Therapeutics.
      • Integrative Studies Institute, Boston, Mass. (1985-86). Additional training and supervision in Integrative Therapeutics.
      • Cato Institute’s Freedom Forum, 1980, Dartmouth College.


      State of Connecticut, License # 026453


      • Diplomate: American Board of Chelation Therapy 1996.
      • Diplomate: American Board of Clinical Metal Toxicology, 2003.
      • Diplomate in Longevity Medicine: International Board of Advanced Longevity Medicine 1999.
      • Certification: Integrative IV Chelation Therapy, Advanced Integrative Medical Institute, 2001.
      • Diplomate: American Boardof Integrative Holistic Medicine. 2009.


      • Private practice of integrative, preventive, environmental and nutritional medicine, 1985 to 1989, including consulting at:

      -Health Dynamics Center, East Haven, CT, Medical Director

      -Family Health Network, Stratford, CT, Consultant

      -Integrated Health Center, Westport, CT, Consultant

      -Westport Clinic, Westport, CT, Independent Practitioner

      -Life Extension Center, Ridgefield, CT, Independent Practitioner

      Founder, Owner, and Director of the Holos Health Center. (1989-92), a multi-disciplinary holistic center, Bridgeport, CT.

      Founder, President, and Medical Director of the Center for the Healing Arts, PC, an integrative multi-disciplinary integrative medical practice. (1992 – present).


      PRESIDENT: International College of Integrative Medicine

      • Served on the Board of Directors 2004-present.
      • ICIM Representative to the Integrative Medical Consortium
        • Chairman of Integrative Medicine Board Certification Committee

        Alliance for Natural Health-USA (formerly American Association for Health Freedom)

        American Board of Clinical Metal Toxicology

        Integrative Medical Consortium

        Connecticut Health Freedom Coalition:

        American College for Advancement in Medicine:

        Member, Milford Chamber of Commerce.

        Member since 1991, American Academy of Environmental Medicine.

        Member since 1985, American Holistic Medical Association

        Member, American Association of Physicians and Surgeons

        Member since 1992, New Haven County Medical Association

        Member since 1985, Connecticut State Medical Society

        • Member, Connecticut Holistic Health Association.
        • National Alliance on Integrative Medical Education: Director and Treasurer, 2001.
        • American College of Integrative Medical Practitioners: Director, 2001.
        • International College of Advanced Longevity Medicine, Board of Directors.
        • Connection for Health Network, Board of Directors, 1996.
          • Chairman: Community and Professional Liaison Committee


          • Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal o f Clinical Therapeutics:Editorial Review Board. 1995 to present
          • University of Bridgeport College of Naturopathic Medicine: Guest Instructor, Intravenous Therapy Course. 2007 to present.
          • NIH TACT Trial Investigator. Completion of the Human Participants Protection Education for Research Teams, 2006-2008.
          • Griffin Hospital: Member of the Preventive Medicine Advisory Committee, 1996, and the Nutritional Supplement Formulary Committee, 1997.
          • Medical Consultant to Trumbull Loves Children, Inc. Child Care Program, 1993 to 1998.
          • Nutrition Committee Chairman and Speaker for Trumbull Schools’ Parent Teacher Association, 1992, 1997, 1998.
          • Participant in brainstorming workshop sponsored by American Holistic Centers for the development of integrative, alternative medical practices, September 1996, Phoenix, AZ.
          • Consultant to Integrated Directions EtAl: Nutrition education to integrated medical practices, 1998-1999.


          • Panelist, “Saving a Million Hearts: Anticipating New Directions in Cardiovascular Medicine”, Lexington KY, March 29, 2012.
          • Contributing Author, Chapter 15 “Freedom is Necessary to Good Health” of Why Peace , compiled & edited by Marc Guttman, MD. Published 2012.
          • Contributing Author ofChapter 9, “One Diet Does Not Fit All”of Fat and Furious by Loree Taylor Jordan, CCH, ID, Madison Publishing, Campbell, CA. 2004.
          • Editor of The Integrative/Environmental Medicine Standard of Care Guidelines for Increased Total Body Burden of Toxic Metals. Approved by ICIM, AAEM, ABCMT. 2004.
          • Integrated Medical Alternative: 1999-2000.

          Moderator of bi-weekly conference calls on integrative medical topics for professionals and the public and Author of bi-monthly newsletter.

          • Guest Columnist, Health Confidential and BottomLine newsletters, 1991-1994. “Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Review of Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment Options.”

          1993 Thorne Research Lecture Series:

          Long Island, NY, Stamford, CT, Santa Monica, and San Francisco, CA.

          American Academy of Environmental Medicine Annual Meeting,

          • “Multiple Chemical Sensitivities and the Workplace: Possibilities for Rehabilitation and Return to Work.” Sponsored by the Ecological Health Organization of Connecticut (ECHO) for the Department of Rehabilitation Services at the Connecticut Hospital Association, Wallingford, CT, Jan. 1994.
          • NEW DIRECTIONS: Public Access Television Series:

          “Exploring Trends in The Care Of Body, Mind, And Spirit”.

          Guest Speaker on two segments: “Introduction to Holistic Medicine” and “Women’s Issues and Natural Hormonal Replacement.”

          Seminar sponsored by the Hartford CFS Support Group. November, 1995.

          56 th Annual Northeast Congress of Optometry, Bedford, MA, November 10-11, 1996.

          Guest Expert on “Asthma and Allergies.” Filmed 1996. Televised nationally.

          Monthly Guest Speaker with Kevin Skiest, 960 am, Hamden, CT. 1996 to 1999.

          • “Exploring the Holistic and Preventive Approach to Improving and Maintaining Health.”

          Committee on Geriatric Nursing Education. June 25, 1997. Meriden, CT.

          New Haven Chamber of Commerce Health Care Council Meeting, August 1, 1997.

          Alzheimer’s Resource Center of Connecticut, Inc., October, 12, 1997.

          (Co-presented with Dr. Barry Sears), Sponsored by the Broda O. Barnes, MD Research Foundation. January 31, 1998. Stamford, CT

          Fairfield University’s Institute for Retired Professionals. Fairfield, CT, February 12, 1998.

          • “Estimation of Tissue Hypothyroidism by a New Clinical Score: Presentation of New Research” “Atypical Laboratory Presentation in Thyroid Disease: Inaccuracies in Laboratory Data” “Clinical Integration: Balancing Hormonal Therapies”.

          Broda O. Barnes Research Foundation, Inc. Annual Physicians’ Teaching Conferences: Fall 1997, Houston, TX and Spring 1998, Seattle, WA.

          Niantic Support Group for Parents of Autistic and Developmentally Delayed Children. March 2,1998.

          New Haven Chapter of Infectious Disease Nurses. Connecticut Hospital Association, Wallingford, CT, March 9, 1998.

          American Association of Naturopathic Physicians’ 1998 East Coast Conference. April 2-4, 1998, Boston, MA.

          Guest Lecturer on longevity and integrative medicine including the Holistic Health Institute Course and other graduate courses in the School of Public Health.

          New Haven, CT, 1996, 1998-2006.

          FreeLife International Annual Convention: 1998, 1999, 2000.

          ACAM 25 th Anniversary Meeting, Phoenix AZ, Nov. 1998 Orlando, FL, May 1999.

          Guest Appearance with Robert Silverstein, MD on Public Access TV, Hartford, CT. October 1, 1998.

          Guest Lecturer on “Longevity Medicine” and “Natural Approach to the Endocrine System”. April 11-18, 1999.

          Filmed show for PBS Feb. 1999. Televised nationally throughout 1999-2000.

          Filmed second segment for PBS, July 209 for release December 2009.

          Natural Health & Healing program guest expert, 2002-present.

          Touchstones program: October 2005.

          • University of Bridgeport College of Naturopathic Medicine, Grand Rounds. Sept. 15, 2004.
          • “Codex and Health Freedom”.International College of Integrative Medicine. Sept. 16, 2005.
          • International Coalition for the Advancement of Fibromyalgia/CFIDS Treatment: “Creating an Integrative Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome”, 2006 Seminar Series Conference and Expo: August 16-19, 2006.
          • Southern Connecticut State University: 16 th Annual Women’s Health Conference: “Longevity and Women’s Health”. October 27, 2006.
          • Healthy Talk Radio with Deborah Ray, MT, Host, March 14, 2007, February 2008, November 2008.
          • International College of Integrative Medicine:
            • “Integrative Medicine: Building a Consistent Model”, Speaker and Assistant Program Chair, XLVI International Congress, March 23-25, 2007. Cincinnati, OH.
            • “Hypothyroidism”, XLVI International Congress, “A Symposium on Integrative Care of Female Patients”, September 21-23, 2007.
            • Clinical Metal Toxicology, Basic Workshop. March 17-18, 2010, Nashville, TN.
            • Speaker: Congressional Briefing on “Integrative Medicine & Nutritional Supplements”, sponsored by the Health Freedom Foundation, September 26, 2007, Washington, DC.
            • “The Assault on Medical Freedom” lecture given at the Connecticut Libertarian Party Convention May 4, 2008, at the Connecticut Health Freedom Foundation March 29, 2008, and Connecticut Holistic Health Association, June 2008.
            • Connecticut Liberty Forum: “Why the FDA May be Dangerous to Your Health?” September 27, 2008.
            • News Channel 8, Connecticut Style: Segment on alternative allergy treatments, May 4, 2009.
            • Breast Cancer Awareness MusicFest fund-raiser for the “Are You Dense” foundation, Presentation on Infrared Mammography, 2009, 2010.
            • Women’s Health Issues Update, Presentation on Infrared Mammography, October 17, 2009.

            Sponsored by Designs for Health Institute.

            • Bridgeport Community Holistic Health Fair: Presentation on Infrared Mammography, April 10, 2010.
            • Guest Speaker, New Jersey Twelve Visions Party Convention, March 19, 2011.
            • Guest Speaker, Southern Connecticut State University course, “Recent Developments in Science Education”, Yale Peabody Museum, March 12, 2011.


            “Psychoneuroimmunology: Immunity, Illness, and Healing.” Sept. 27-28, 1995. Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME.

            An In-Depth Review of Nutritional, Environmental, and Stress-Related Factors.” July 3-7, 1989. Omega Institute, Rhinebeck, NY.

            “Bereavement Support in the Hospice Continuum of Care.” May 22-23, 1986. Branford, CT.

            “The Power of Laughter and Play: Uses of Humor in the Healing Arts.” October 17-19, 1986. Toronto, Ontario.

            “Third Annual Conference on Eating Disorders: Medical Management and Physiological Complications of Eating Disorders.” December 1988.

            “Cholesterol and Coronary Disease Reducing the Risk.”

            “Therapeutic Touch: An Extension of Professional Clinical Skills.” By Dr. Dolores Krieger, PhD, RN. September 25, 1993.

            • National League for Nursing: “Child Abuse: Identification and Reporting.” New York, 1995.
            • Massachusetts Medical Society:

            “Literature and the Professions: A Workshop for Physicians.” July 18, 1997. Lakeville, MA.

            “Nutrition as It Relates to Environmental Medicine.” July 24-25, 1991. Chicago, IL.

            “16 th Instructional Courses in Environmental Medicine.” July 26-28, 1991. Chicago, IL.

            Practicum with Dr. William Rea, Environmental Health Center, Dallas, TX, Sept. 1991. “Environmental Medicine in Everyday Practice.” January 23-26, 1992. Cleveland, OH.

            “Nutrition as It Relates to Environmental Medicine.” July 29-30, 1992. Dallas, TX.

            “Environmental Medicine Advanced Instructional Course.” July 31-Aug 2, 1992. Dallas, TX.

            “AAEM 27 th Annual Meeting” Oct. 24-27, 1992. Lincolnshire, IL.

            “30 th Annual Meeting: The Cutting Edge of Environmental Medicine.” Sept. 29-Oct. 3, 1995. Tucson, AZ.

            “Diagnosis & Treatment of Chemical Toxicity & Sensitivity, Basic & Advanced.” April 15-19, 2004. Overland Park, KS.

            “Planet in Peril: Best Treatment Solutions for Tough Times”, October 31-November 2, 2008, Orlando, FL.

            “Clinical Nutrition and Functional Medicine.” 1993. Stamford, CT.

            “Applying Essentials in Nutritional Medicine.” 1995. Boston, MA.

            “Improving Genetic Expression in the Prevention of the Diseases of Aging.” 1998. Boston, MA.

            “Molecular Duality of Oxygen and Degenerative Disease: Strategies for Disease Reversal and Health Promotion.” May 6-9, 1993. Houston, TX.

            “Chelation Therapy Workshop.” May 5-6, 1993.

            “Cutting Edge Science in Clinical Practice.” May 1994. Minneapolis, MN.

            “Cardiovascular Disease and Treatment-A Comprehensive Perspective.” May 9-12, 1996. Orlando, FL.

            “Nutritional Intervention in Cancer Prevention and Treatment: Shifting the Paradigm” and

            “Basic Longevity Workshop” April 29-May 3, 1998.

            25 th Anniversary Meeting: Phoenix, AZ: Nov. 19-22, 1998: “Cardiovascular Disease in the 21 st Century: Prevention, Reversal, & Permanent Restoration.”

            Also ACAM Conferences in Orlando, FL: May 1999, Reno, NV: Oct. 1999, Dallas, TX, May 2000, and Salt Lake City, UT: Oct. 2000. Nov. 2004. Mesotherapy Conference: Nov. 2004.

            2008 Spring Conference, Orlando FL.

            “Optimal Health Through Integrative Medicine”, Las Vegas, NV Nov. 2010.

            “Thyroid Disorders” by Jacques Hertoghe, MD. Fall, 1989. Stratford, CT.

            “Treatment of Endocrine Imbalances.” November 1990. Trumbull, CT.

            “Hypothyroidism, Adrenopause, Menopause, and Andropause.” October 1992. Trumbull, CT.

            “Andropause: The Male Climacteric and its Consequences.” March 1993. Rye Brook, NY.

            “The Art of Balancing the Endocrine System.” October 21, 1993. Lombard, IL.

            “Applications of Dietary Endocrinology: Hyperinsulinemia, Obesity, and Type I & Type II Diabetes.” Sept. 22-24, 1995. Scottsdale, AZ.

            “Spring 1997 Physicians Teaching Seminar.” April 4-6, 1997. Newport Beach, CA.

            “The Latest Clinical Information on Balancing the Endocrine System.” March 27-29, 1998.

            “Physicians’ Teaching Seminars” 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007.

            • University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Clinical Teleconference Series: “New Advances in Growth Hormone Therapy”, 1997.
            • Neuropathways Real-time Digital EEG Neurofeedback Training

            Beverly Hills, CA, June 22-27, 1998.

            An Evidence Based Approach. Monthly. 1998-1999.

            “American Preventive Medical Association Legal Education Seminar”

            “Quality of Life and Longevity Medicine”

            “Advanced Longevity Workshop and Certification Exam.” Las Vegas, NV, May 7-11, 1998.

            “Achieving Clinical Excellence: Genomics in Primary Care Medicine.” Westbrook, CT June 22, 2002.

            • International College of Integrative Medicine: Biannual Congress: Sept. 1999, March 2001, Oct. 2001, March 2003, Sept. 2003.
            • New Frontiers in Advanced Treatment Strategies and “Mercury: A Risk Realized” workshop. Baltimore, MD, March 22-25, 2001.
            • ICIM Congress & “Nutrition and Psychiatric Disorders Seminar.” Cleveland, OH, Oct. 2-6, 2001.
            • ICIM Congress & Heavy Metal Toxicology Workshop. St. Louis, MO, Sept. 10-14, 2003.
            • ICIM Congress. March 2004, Houston TX.
            • “Conventional & Integrative Therapies, What Works Best in Clinical Practice?” Oct. 10-12, 2004, Atlanta, GA.
            • “Lyme Disease” March 11-13, and the Oxidative Medicine Workshop, March 9-10, 2005, Mesa, AZ.
            • “Degenerative Disease – Regenerative Medicine” Sept. 16-18, 2005. Grand Rapids, MI.
            • “Transformation in Health & Healing.” March 24-26, 2006. Chicago, IL
            • “Clinical Applications of Biological Energetics”, Sept. 29-Oct 1, 2006. Cleveland, OH.
            • “The Integrative Medical Paradigm” March 21-25, 2007. Cincinnati, OH
            • “Symposium on the Integrative Care of Female Patients.” Sept. 21-23, 2007, Detroit, MI
            • “Integrating Wellness into Medical Practice”, March 14-16, 2008, Nashville, TN
            • “Getting Well with Food And Nutrition” October 2-5. 2008, Pittsburgh, PA.
            • “Detoxification”, October 2-4, 2009. Grand Rapids, MI Including “Advanced Course on Metal Toxicity, Remedies and Rationale, The Use by Terrorists of Compounded with Chelation Remedies.”
            • “Healthy Brain, Healthy Body: Mental Wellness in the 21 st Century”, March 19-21, 2010, Nashville, TN.
            • “Infections” Sept. 23-26, 2010. Buffalo, NY.
              • “Anchoring Stimulus-Response Conditioning”, “Saving A Million Hearts Forum”, and “Rapid Therapeutic Response”, Lexington KY, March 28-April 1, 2012.
              • Advanced Integrative Medical Institute:

              Integrative IV Chelation course, Pittsburgh, PA. April 2001.

              Nutritional Pharmacology and Clinical Applications of Carnitine. October 1, 2002.

              Management of Obesity, May 2003.

              Practice Empowerment Series, Sept. 10-12, 2004.

              Repairing Metabolic Damage in the Metabolic Syndrome. Oct. 1-2, 2005.

              Women’s Health Issues Update, Presentation on Infrared Mammography, October 17, 2009.

              Neurotransmitter Testing and Treatment in Clinical Practice. Sept. 28, 2005, Jan. 26, 2006.


              Baumer, Benjamin S., Daniel T. Kaplan, and Nicholas J. Horton. 2017. Modern Data Science with R. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

              Bernard, Gordon R., Arthur P. Wheeler, James A. Russell, Roland Schein, Warren R. Summer, Kenneth P. Steinberg, William J. Fulkerson, et al. 1997. “The Effects of Ibuprofen on the Physiology and Survival of Patients with Sepsis.” New England Journal of Medicine 336: 912–18.

              Bock, David E., Paul F. Velleman, and Richard D. De Veaux. 2004. Stats: Modelling the World. Boston MA: Pearson Addison-Wesley.

              Dupont, William D. 2002. Statistical Modeling for Biomedical Researchers. New York: Cambridge University Press.

              Faraway, Julian J. 2015. Linear Models with R. Second. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

              Gelman, Andrew, and Jennifer Hill. 2007. Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel-Hierarchical Models. New York: Cambridge University Press.

              Gelman, Andrew, and Deborah Nolan. 2017. Teaching Statistics: A Bag of Tricks. Second. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

              Good, Phillip I. 2005. Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R/S-Plus. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

              Grolemund, Garrett, and Hadley Wickham. 2019. R for Data Science. O’Reilly.

              Ismay, Chester, and Albert Y. Kim. 2019. ModernDive: Statistical Inference via Data Science.

              Morton, D., A. Saah, S. Silberg, W. Owens, M. Roberts, and M. Saah. 1982. “Lead Absorption in Children of Employees in a Lead Related Industry.” American Journal of Epidemiology 115: 549–55.

              Norman, Geoffrey R., and David L. Streiner. 2014. Biostatistics: The Bare Essentials. Fourth. People’s Medical Publishing House.

              Pagano, Marcello, and Kimberlee Gauvreau. 2000. Principles of Biostatistics. Second. Duxbury Press.

              Pruzek, Robert M., and James E. Helmreich. 2009. “Enhancing Dependent Sample Analyses with Graphics.” Journal of Statistics Education 17(1).

              Ramsey, Fred L., and Daniel W. Schafer. 2002. The Statistical Sleuth: A Course in Methods of Data Analysis. Second. Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury.

              Vittinghoff, Eric, David V. Glidden, Stephen C. Shiboski, and Charles E. McCulloch. 2012. Regression Methods in Biostatistics: Linear, Logistic, Survival, and Repeated Measures Models. Second. Springer-Verlag, Inc.

              Wainer, Howard. 1997. Visual Revelations: Graphical Tales of Fate and Deception from Napoleon Bonaparte to Ross Perot. New York: Springer-Verlag.

              ———. 2005. Graphic Discovery: A Trout in the Milk and Other Visual Adventures. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

              ———. 2013. Medical Illuminations: Using Evidence, Visualization and Statistical Thinking to Improve Healthcare. New York: Oxford University Press.

              Putting it all together: established and emerging MRI techniques for detecting and measuring liver fibrosis

              Chronic injury to the liver leads to inflammation and hepatocyte necrosis, which when untreated can lead to myofibroblast activation and fibrogenesis with deposition of fibrous tissue. Over time, liver fibrosis can accumulate and lead to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease with associated portal hypertension and liver failure. Detection and accurate measurement of the severity of liver fibrosis are important for assessing disease severity and progression, directing patient management, and establishing prognosis. Liver biopsy, generally considered the clinical standard of reference for detecting and measuring liver fibrosis, is invasive and has limitations, including sampling error, relatively high cost, and possible complications. For these reasons, liver biopsy is suboptimal for fibrosis screening, longitudinal monitoring, and assessing therapeutic efficacy. A variety of established and emerging qualitative and quantitative noninvasive MRI methods for detecting and staging liver fibrosis might ultimately serve these purposes. In this article, we review multiple MRI methods for detecting and measuring liver fibrosis and discuss the diagnostic performance and specific strengths and limitations of the various techniques.

              This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

              Chapter Twenty-Three - Application of the Transfer Model to Understand How Naturally Occurring Osmolytes Affect Protein Stability

              A primary thermodynamic goal in protein biochemistry is to attain a predictive understanding of the energetic changes responsible for solvent‐induced folding and unfolding. This chapter demonstrates the use of Tanford's transfer model to predict solvent‐dependent cooperative protein folding/unfolding free energy changes (m values). This approach provides a thermodynamic description of these free energy changes in terms of individual contributions from the peptide backbone and residue side chains. The quantitative success of the transfer model has been hindered for many years because of unresolved issues involving proper measurement of the group transfer‐free energies of amino acid side chains and the peptide backbone unit. This chapter demonstrates what is necessary to design experiments properly so that reliable values of group transfer‐free energies are obtainable. It then demonstrates how to derive a prediction of the m value for the description of protein folding/unfolding cooperativity and that the calculated values using the transfer model agree quite well with experimentally measured values.

              Watch the video: Introduction to Biological Molecules: Monomers u0026 Polymers. A-level Biology. OCR, AQA, Edexcel (August 2022).