Can Naegleria fowleri enter through the eyes ( example rinsing/splashing eyes with water)

Can Naegleria fowleri enter through the eyes ( example rinsing/splashing eyes with water)

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

I understand that it primarily enters the body through the nose by by "feeding on the olfactory neurons in the nose" as answered here in a different question. Would the nerve cells in the eyes present a similar entryway?

In a 1987 article "Nonenteric Infections Acquired through Contact with Water", the author mentioned that "Infection of the ears, throat, respiratory tract, and cornea are also encountered" by virulent strains of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria fowleri. The only reference that implicates Naegleria fowleri is this one, but it doesn't mention modes of infection.

The long and the short of it is that Acanthamoeba infections can be acquired through contact with the cornea, but it's not clear whether Naegleria infections can also be acquired in this way.

n.b. The first link takes you to the JSTOR page. In the event you do not have access, here is the PubMed page.

Answer Desk

I've read that unlike humans, octopuses have eyes "designed" the "right way", i.e. with the nerve fibers behind the retina, thus getting rid of the blind spot we humans have as well as theoretically improving eyesight.

Have there been tests to compare octopus sight with that of humans, and do they indeed have better vision than us?

Human biology - Structure of adenoids

Also, this question is going to be slightly gross, just a warning, but I promise it comes to a point.

I have read that the adenoids have a texture to them but, unlike say the palatine tonsils, they don't have crypts.

Last year my palatine tonsils became fairly badly infected and had to be removed over the summer. Before the surgery, I discovered I could reach back to the tonsils with my tongue, enabling me to remove the tonsil stones that built up. Gross, I know, but I believe it actually did make the infection noticeably better. After the surgery, and after the area had healed, I resumed discovering the back of my throat and, eventually, up the nasal cavity, all the way to the back of the nasal septum, which means I can reach the Eustachian tubes, adenoids, and posterior nares. If that sounds impossible, I assure you, it is perfectly achievable, and only mildly uncomfortable. With my tongue I can feel the texture of the adenoids but, more toward the posterior nares, this texture changes and resembles folds or crypts like I remember the texture of the palatine tonsils. Three times, always in the morning after waking up, I have discovered debris in this region strongly resembling tonsil stones but green instead of off white. The mucus, however, is always clear.

  1. What are these crypts? Are they even crypts at all? Are they part of the adenoids?
  2. Why can I not find mention to these structures in any diagrams or medical articles?
  3. Why can I not find mention to tonsil stone like debris except in the palatine tonsils? I am quite convinced that, if these are not tonsil stones of a sort, they are closely related.

The proportions of diagrams and cross sections of the nasal cavity all seem wildly different. Some of them are just blatantly wrong, depicting, for example, the Eustachian tubes coming from the roof of the nasal cavity instead of the sides. It has been very difficult to find good information on any of this. I am not even sure if I am referring to the region correctly. By nasal cavity, I mean everything between the back of the throat and the posterior nares, although I am aware the nasal cavity includes the region all the way up to the anterior nares as well.

This is the only picture I can find that shows the nasal septum.

This is a better diagram of the rest of the structures. The pharyngeal tonsils are the adenoids.

Human biology - Can Naegleria fowleri enter through the eyes ( example rinsing/splashing eyes with water)

In a 1987 article "Nonenteric Infections Acquired through Contact with Water", the author mentioned that "Infection of the ears, throat, respiratory tract, and cornea are also encountered" by virulent strains of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria fowleri. The only reference that implicates Naegleria fowleri is this one, but it doesn't mention modes of infection.

The long and the short of it is that Acanthamoeba infections can be acquired through contact with the cornea, but it's not clear whether Naegleria infections can also be acquired in this way.

n.b. The first link takes you to the JSTOR page. In the event you do not have access, here is the PubMed page.

Healthy and Safe Swimming Communications Toolkit

The information and materials below are meant to help public health professionals promote healthy and safe swimming messages on social media, websites, and other communication channels during Healthy and Safe Swimming Week (HSSW) and throughout the year. These resources are designed to raise awareness about the steps everyone can take to protect themselves and those they care about from injury and illness when swimming.

All Audiences
  • Update or create web content related to swimming and diarrhea on your agency&rsquos website and share promotion materials.
  • Consider having CDC&rsquos healthy swimming syndicated content on your website without having to maintain it. When CDC updates the syndicated content, your website will be updated as well. Your site&rsquos colors, fonts, navigation, and other unique properties will be unaffected.
  • Use social media posts to spread the word about healthy swimming.
  • Disseminate healthy swimming messages and materials (for example, in e-mail announcements).
  • Share CDC&rsquos most up-to-date COVID-19 guidance for public pools, hot tubs, and water playgrounds and for public beaches.
  • Provide a press release to media outlets (see Press Release Template).
  • Share information on steps swimmers and caregivers can take to prevent swimming-related illnesses, drowning, and pool chemical injuries.
Operators of Treated Aquatic Venues (Pools, Hot Tubs, and Water Playgrounds)
  • Tell operators where they can find information on if their venue can be open to the public and, if so, how to open it safely.
  • Share guidance on
      (see step 5) to help prevent outbreaks of Legionnaires&rsquo disease, and
  • operating public pools, hot tubs, and water playgrounds during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Beach Managers and Operators of Untreated Aquatic Venues
    • Tell beach managers where they can find information on if their venue can be open to the public and, if so, how to open it safely.
    • Share guidance on operating public beaches during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Tell beach managers to:
      • Check out EPA&rsquos online technical resources external icon .
      • Sign up for the BeachNet listserv to communicate and network with other beach managers across the country: external icon .
      • Establish policies that allow employees to perform alternate duties that do not require entering the water if they have diarrhea or an open cut or wound that cannot be completely covered by a waterproof bandage.
      Pool Supply Stores
      • Recommend that stores display healthy and safe swimming promotion materials, particularly those focused on pool chemical safety, in their stores and on their websites.
      Healthcare Providers
      • Encourage providers to share healthy and safe swimming promotion materials with their patients.
        • Engage your local chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics external icon or other organizations for healthcare professionals.
        Community Leaders
        • Create fact sheets for community leaders (such as program administrators, boards of health, and elected officials) detailing specifics about your agency&rsquos HSSW efforts.

        Use these graphics and suggested posts to spread the word about healthy and safe swimming on your social media platforms.

        • Follow CDC&rsquos Steps for Healthy Swimming to protect yourself and those you care about from illness at the pool and at the beach this summer. external icon
        • Pee in the toilet, not in the pool! When pee and chlorine mix in the pool, there is less chlorine available to kill germs. external icon
        • #DYK that chlorine doesn&rsquot kill germs in pools right away? While it kills most germs in minutes, some germs can live in a properly chlorinated pool for days! Protect yourself. Don&rsquot swallow water you swim or play in. #healthyswimming external icon
        • Sweat and dirt on your body can use up chlorine needed to kill germs in the pool. Showering before you get in the pool keeps chlorine levels up to keep you and those you care about healthy! #healthyswimming external icon
        • Going for a swim with kids? Take a break every hour to use the bathroom or check diapers. Change diapers away from the water to keep germs from getting in. #healthyswimming external icon
        • Diarrhea and swimming don&rsquot mix! Follow CDC&rsquos Steps for Healthy Swimming to help protect yourself and those you care about from illness at the pool. #healthyswimming external icon
        • Did you know swallowing even a small amount of water contaminated with diarrhea germs can make you sick for up to 3 weeks? Practice healthy swimming by not swallowing the water you swim in! #healthyswimming external icon
        • Don&rsquot swim or let your kids swim if sick with diarrhea. One person with diarrhea can contaminate the entire pool. Learn more ways to keep you and those you care about healthy. #healthyswimming external icon
        Healthy and Safe Swimming Week Graphics

        • Watch kids closely when they are in or around the pool. Drowning happens quickly and quietly, so avoid distracting activities like being on a smartphone. external icon
        • Drowning is a leading cause of injury-related death in children less than 15 years old. Learn what you can do to protect children from drowning. external icon
        • Prevent access to your backyard pool when it&rsquos not in use. Install fencing and use locks/alarms for windows and doors. external icon
        • Keep swimmers safe. Know how to recognize and respond to a swimmer in distress and how to perform CPR. external icon
        • Using your backyard pool? Pool chemicals protect us from germs but can cause injuries if not handled safely. Check out CDC&rsquos pool chemical safety tips. external icon
        • Using your backyard pool this summer? Protect kids and pets by keeping pool chemicals out of reach. external icon
        • Backyard pool owners: Make sure you know how to safely use pool chemicals to help keep everyone safe and healthy this summer. external icon
        • Backyard pool owners: Order a FREE chemical safety use poster to learn how to safely use pool chemicals and protect yourself, kids, and pets from injury. external icon
        Pool Chemical Safety Graphic

        In preparation for Healthy and Safe Swimming Week, states or local communities can use content from this press release template to develop their own press release highlighting healthy and safe swimming messages. Use any of the data or tips from the chart to create your press release. This content is intended to be customized to best meet each state&rsquos or local community&rsquos priorities and needs.

        For Release [date]

        Contact: Name, title

        Healthy and Safe Swimming Week 2021

        <City, State> &mdash The week before Memorial Day (May 24&ndash30) is Healthy and Safe Swimming Week. The goal of this year&rsquos awareness week is to maximize the health benefits of swimming while minimizing the risk of illness and injury. Just 2.5 hours of physical activity every week, including water-based physical activity, can benefit everyone&rsquos health. Each of us plays a role in preventing illnesses and injuries related to the water we swim, play, and relax in, and share&mdashthis summer and year-round.

        Illnesses caused by the germs in pools and hot tubs

        A new CDC report shows that during 2015&ndash2019, >200 outbreaks were linked to pools, hot tubs, and water playgrounds.

        Cryptosporidium (or Crypto) can make swimmers sick if they swallow just a mouthful of contaminated water. Although most germs are killed within minutes by chlorine or bromine at the recommended levels, Crypto is a germ that can survive in properly treated water for more than 7 days.

        Before getting in:

        • Don&rsquot swim or let others swim if sick with diarrhea.
        • Shower for at least 1 minute before you get into the water to remove dirt or anything else on your body.
          • Chlorine mixed with dirt, sweat, pee, and poop creates chemicals that make swimmers&rsquo eyes red and sting.
          • When chlorine mixes with dirt, sweat, pee, and poop, there is less chlorine available to kill germs.

          Once you are in:

          • Don&rsquot swallow the water.
          • Don&rsquot pee or poop in the water.
          • Take kids on frequent bathroom breaks and check diapers every hour.
            • Change diapers away from the water to keep germs from getting in.

            Healthy swimming information

            Each day, approximately two children less than 15 years old die from drowning. Drowning is the leading cause of injury-related death for children 1&ndash4 years old.

            While children are at highest risk, anyone can drown.

            Stay safe in and around the water

            • Make sure everyone has basic swimming and water safety skills.
            • Use U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets as directed.
            • Designate a responsible adult to closely and constantly supervise swimmers.
            • Know how to recognize and respond to a swimmer in distress and how to perform CPR.

            Keep backyard pools safe

            • Prevent access to water when pool is not in use.
            • Install and maintain barriers that fully enclose the pool and separate it from the house, like 4-sided fencing.
            • Use locks/alarms for windows and doors.

            Injuries caused by mishandling pool chemicals

            Pool chemicals, like chlorine, are needed to protect swimmers&rsquo health. However, mishandling pool chemicals can cause serious injuries. Pool chemical injuries lead to about 4,500 U.S. emergency department visits each year, and over one-third of these preventable injuries are in children or teens.

            Take the following steps to prevent pool chemical injuries:

            • Read and follow all directions on product labels.
            • Wear safety equipment&mdashsuch as masks, gloves, and goggles&mdashwhen handling chemicals.
            • Keep chemicals secure and away from children and pets.

            Prevent violent, potentially explosive, reactions:

            • NEVER mix different pool chemicals with each other, particularly chlorine products and acid.
            • Pre-dissolve pool chemicals ONLY when directed by product label.
            • Add pool chemical to water, NEVER water to pool chemical.

            You can order a FREE laminated poster on using pool chemicals safely on the CDC-INFO On Demand website, and download and print a poster on storing pool chemicals safely on the Healthy Swimming Posters webpage.

            Harmful Algae and Cyanobacterial Blooms

            Algae and cyanobacteria (sometimes called blue-green algae) can overgrow or bloom in warm, nutrient-rich water. Some of these blooms can harm people, animals, and the environment. These events are referred to as a harmful algal or cyanobacterial blooms (HABs).

            If harmful algal or cyanobacterial blooms produce toxins, they can cause a variety of symptoms, including skin irritation, coughing, sneezing, diarrhea, stomach pain, numbness, and dizziness. Symptoms vary depending on the type of toxin and the type of exposure, such as skin contact, eating contaminated food, swallowing contaminated water, or breathing in tiny contaminated droplets or mist.

            Avoid water that contains harmful algal or cyanobacterial blooms&mdashwhen in doubt, stay out!

            • Look for posted signs or other advisories from local public health authorities or beach managers. If the beach is closed or if there is guidance to avoid the water, stay out and keep your pets out!
            • Do not go into or play in water that:
              • Smells bad
              • Looks discolored
              • Has foam, scum, algal mats, or paint-like streaks on the surface
              • Has dead fish or other animals washed up on its shore or beach

              Naegleria fowleri &ldquoThe Brain-eating Ameba&rdquo

              Naegleria fowleri is a microscopic ameba (a single-celled living organism) that is commonly found in warm freshwater such as in lakes, rivers, and hot springs. If water containing the ameba goes up the nose, the ameba can invade and cause a rare and devastating infection of the brain called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

              Naegleria fowleri infections are rare. The only certain way to prevent an infection due to swimming is to stay out of freshwater. However, you can reduce your chance of getting an infection by limiting the amount of freshwater going up your nose.

              Brain Eating Amoeba (Naegleria fowleri) Infection

              Brain-Eating Amoeba signs and symptoms may start about 1 day to 1 week after exposure initially symptoms may include:

              • changes in smell and taste,
              • headache,
              • fever,
              • stiff neck,
              • nausea, and vomiting.

              The patient may have confusion, ataxia (wobbliness), and seizures and rapidly worsen over about 3 to 7 days with death occurring about 7 to 14 days after exposure.

              What is Naegleria fowleri?

              Naegleria fowleri is a heat-loving, single-celled amoeba (also spelled amoeba) in the phylum of protozoa called Percolozoa. It is free-living, meaning that it normally lives in freshwater and soil, consuming organic matter and bacteria. The organism goes through three stages in its life cycle: cyst, flagellate, and trophozoite. Cysts are highly stable in the environment and can withstand near-freezing temperatures. The flagellate form is an intermediate stage that moves about but does not consume nutrients or reproduce. The trophozoite form is the active, eating, reproducing phase. Animals and humans are "accidental hosts." PAM occurs only when an animal or human enters the environment at a time when amebae are actively reproducing and seeking food. Naegleria are "thermophilic," meaning that they become active in warm water during summer months. They live in both tropical and temperate climates throughout the world. The organism is commonly found in any freshwater, including rivers, lakes, drainage ditches, ponds, or any other water exposed to soil. It is also common in hot springs (geothermal water) or in localized areas where warmer water is discharged into lakes. Where the water temperature is cool, Naegleria will encyst. The protective cyst form may be found in the sediment at the bottom of lakes, where it survives winters. The most infectious form is the trophozoite stage, but cysts may also become infectious within a few hours of detecting favorable conditions. The flagellated stage can become a trophozoite within minutes.

              It has been found in poorly chlorinated and unchlorinated swimming pools, as well as water parks using non-chlorine-based water treatment methods. In 2016, a young woman contracted amebic meningoencephalitis after white water rafting at a popular artificial rafting park in North Carolina. The park did not use recommended chlorination as for swimming pools. Public health authorities found extremely high levels of Naegleria fowleri in the water.

              Travelers outside the U.S. may also be exposed to Naegleria due to variances in water treatment. In 2013, an American boy was infected after swimming in an unchlorinated hotel pool in Costa Rica that was fed by a hot spring. In Pakistan, where many water supplies may not have consistent chlorination, several deaths from Naegleria infection occur every year, due to rinsing of the nose with tap water prior to prayer. In 2015, a young woman contracted Naegleria infection after visiting a popular water resort in Pakistan.

              In recent years, Naegleria fowleri was discovered in public drinking water and plumbing in New Orleans. Naegleria is resistant to low levels of chlorine, and chlorine dissipates the further treated water travels from a treatment plant. This was discovered after three fatal cases in which the only risk factors were flushing of sinuses with tap water and playing on a hose-fed Slip 'N Slide. Naegleria was found in the hose, in drinking water, and hot water heaters in these cases. Australia has known of Naegleria in drinking water for 30 years, when the first cases of PAM were described related to public drinking water. Since then, Australia has maintained a water treatment system that eliminates it. Louisiana implemented the Australian model in 2013, which includes regular monitoring for Naegleria and chlorine and increasing chlorine for 60 days if the ameba is found. (This is called a "chlorine burn.")

              While most cases of amebic meningoencephalitis in the U.S. have been reported in the southern-tier states, warming temperature trends have shifted cases north as far as Maryland and Minnesota in recent years.

              Naegleria fowleri cannot live in saltwater and is not found in the ocean.

              Although there are many species of Naegleria, only Naegleria fowleri causes human and animal infection. There are other free-living amoebae that cause human disease, including Balamuthia mandrillaris, various Acanthamoeba species, and Sappinia species.


              What causes a Naegleria fowleri infection?

              N. fowleri exposure occurs when warm fresh water is forced up the nose when swimming, diving, water skiing, playing with hose-fed water toys, or other recreational activity. Public drinking water and well water may also pose a risk. Although contact with infected water is common in the United States, symptomatic disease caused by N. fowleri is not often reported. Naegleria infection mainly affects the nervous system.

              PAM occurs when N. fowleri is aspirated or forced high into the nasal cavity. The ameba produces enzymes that digest mucus and protein, which it swallows up with its "food cups" or amoebastomes. N. fowleri is attracted to chemicals released by nerve cells. The olfactory nerves (nerves of smell) travel from the roof of the nasal cavity through openings in the skull (cribriform plate) into the base of the brain. The ameba consumes the nerve cells, migrating along these tracts until it reaches the brain. The brain is an especially rich food source, with high oxygen levels, glucose, and living cells. Damage to the brain is caused by severe inflammation, direct injury, and bleeding. Death is caused by the resulting severe swelling of the brain tissue.

              Latest Infectious Disease News

              Daily Health News

              Trending on MedicineNet

              What are risk factors for Naegleria fowleri infection?

              The source of nearly all of the Naegleria fowleri infections reported since 1962 in the U.S. has been exposure to untreated freshwater during the summer. Activities that pose a risk include submerging the head, jumping feet first, diving, and sports that pull a person behind a boat, like wakeboarding, tubing, and water skiing. Water sources include freshwater lakes, rivers, drainage ditches, and ponds. Other freshwater sources have included hot springs, poorly chlorinated swimming pools and water parks, untreated well water, water heaters, neti pots, hose water, and warm water discharge from power plants.

              Cases have historically occurred in the South, primarily Florida and Texas. In recent years, cases have been reported as far north as Minnesota, Maryland, Lake Havasu City in Arizona, Los Angeles in California, and other sites. Climate change is thought to be playing a role in its spread.

              Of the 37 cases reported from 2005 to 2015, 33 people acquired PAM from recreational exposure to freshwater, three from using a neti pot with contaminated tap water, and one from playing on a hose-fed Slip 'N Slide toy. Most patients are young, healthy, and active, between 10-14 years of age. The full range of ages is 5-19.

              Neti pots are sinus irrigation systems that are designed to flush water deep into the nasal cavity. They are often successfully used by allergy and sinus sufferers. Many people are not aware that public drinking water is not tested for amebae and is only chlorinated enough to kill some diarrhea-causing bacteria drinking water is not sterile and contains a living ecosystem of bacteria, fungi, and amebae. These are usually harmless but occasionally are not. Higher levels of chlorine are needed to kill most infection-causing parasites like ameba and other protozoa. In addition, private water cisterns and water storage tanks may pose a risk.

              In parts of the world where chlorination is poor, nasal rinsing may be used to purify the body before prayer -- an act called ritual ablution. In Pakistan, recent years have seen reports from 10-15 cases per year of PAM, and chlorination of drinking water or pools has been lax.

              It is not possible to give an accurate estimate of invasive Naegleria fowleri infection compared to the many more probable exposures. It is easy to consider, however, that cases are missed because health professionals lack awareness, there is misdiagnosis or trouble making a diagnosis before death, or there is a lack of diagnosis because autopsy is not routinely performed. Few medical situations require a legally mandatory autopsy by the medical examiner, and many facilities don't do them anymore. Autopsies are not covered by insurance and cost up to $5,000. Most death certificates are signed by a doctor based on a best guess. Underreporting may occur because there is no mandatory federal reporting, and states differ in the requirement to report diseases related to amebae.

              Other ameba have been transmitted by transplanted tissue, but Naegleria fowleri has not caused disease. Between 1995 and 2012, 21 organs have been transplanted from individuals who died from PAM however, no cases of transplant-related PAM have been recorded, which is reassuring. The risk is not zero, because Naegleria can spread in the blood to other organs, probably when the blood-brain barrier has been destroyed.

              Swallowing the ameba has not been associated with infection. Properly chlorinated and maintained recreational water systems or seawater have not been associated with infection.

              Humidifiers or vaporizers do not pose a risk droplets produced by these devices are very small and cannot carry an ameba or cyst without the organism drying out.

              Chapter 96 - Rickettsiae, protozoa, and opisthokonta/metazoa

              Rhizobiales (formerly named Rickettsiales) cause in rare instances meningitis and meningovasculitis, respectively. In case of history of exposure, infection by Rhizobiales needs to be considered since both diagnosis and therapy may be extremely difficult and pathogen-specific. The same applies to protozoa in this chapter, Babesia species, free-living amoebae and Entamoeba histolytica infection, including severe meningitis and brain abscess, infection by Trypanosoma species (South American and African trypanosomiasis) are discussed with respect to history, epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as differential diagnosis and therapy. Parasitic flatworms and roundworms, potentially able to invade the central nervous system, trematodes (flukes), cestodes (in particular, Cysticercus cellulosae), but also nematodes (in particular, Strongyloides spp. in the immunocompromised) are of worldwide importance. In contrast, filarial worms, Toxocara spp., Trichinella spp., Gnathostoma and Angiostrongylus spp. are seen only in certain geographically confined areas.

              Even more regionally confined are infestations of the central nervous system by metazoa, in particular, tongue worms ( = arthropods) or larvae of flies ( = maggots).

              The aim of this chapter is (1) to alert the neurologist to these infections, and (2) to enable the attending emergency neurologist to take a knowledgeable history, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical signs, and symptoms as well as therapeutic management possibilities.

              Chapter 22 - Environmentally Transmitted Pathogens

              Pathogenic microorganisms usually originate from an infected host or directly from the environment however, only a small proportion of these microbes cause infection. This chapter discusses the pathogens that are transmitted through the environment such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Many human pathogens can be transmitted only by direct or close contact with an infected person or animal such as herpesvirus. Virus transmission by the airborne route may be both direct and indirect inhalation of infectious droplets or through contact with contaminated fomites. Water-borne diseases—such as yellow fever, dengue, filariasis, malaria, onchocerciasis, and sleeping sicknessare transmitted by insects that breed in water or live near water. The common bacterial pathogens transmitted through water include Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and Legionella. Opportunistic pathogens are also numerous in the environment, and the most important opportunistic pathogen is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Viruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis and water-borne outbreaks may be caused by norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Coxsackie virus, echovirus, and adenoviruses. Respiratory diseases are also associated with a large number of viruses such as rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, and adenovirus. Generally, viral and protozoan pathogens survive longer in the environment than enteric bacterial pathogens.

              INTERLUDE on Electricity:

              I’ll take a brief break prior to the final two entries to focus on a clear trend from above, namely that electricity is profoundly dangerous.

              From lightning to EMPs to Lichtenberg Figures, it is no joke that you don’t want to mess around with electricity in any way.

              There are three basic properties to electrical flow and those are: current, voltage, and resistance.

              Current = amperes = amps = flow

              This is the number of negatively charged electrons moving through a cross-section of a circuit per second. 1 amp = a LOT of electrons.

              Voltage = volts = potential energy difference

              In order for the ‘flow’ to happen, there needs to be a difference in potential energy somewhere in the circuit. This difference is measured in volts.

              A typical household battery is 1.5 volts, meaning that there is a 1.5 difference in potential energy between the positive and negative ends of the battery.

              Once you pop the battery into the circuit, the electrons suddenly have a reason to move in one direction together and that’s when things happen.

              Resistance = Ohms = flow control

              The ‘flow’, given a reason to move, still needs to move through something.

              If you pump water from one barrel to another using a hose, the amount of water that moves per second will be directly related to the size of the hose you’re using.

              A smaller hose will move some water but a wider hose will move more.

              So, with electricity, the more conductive the pathway, the less resistance it has and the more electrons can go flying through.

              When it comes to humans, it’s not really volts that are dangerous but actually the amps — the amount of electrons allowed to flow through us.

              This is why wet hands or docked boats or standing in a field during a lightning storm is bad. If you become the path-of-least-resistance, you become the conduit for the amps to flow through.

              At even 0.01 amps, you receive a painful shock and your muscles contract and your breathing becomes laboured (due to the muscle contraction).

              Between 0.1 and 0.2 amps, your heart goes into ventricular fibrillation and you quite simply die because the blood stops pumping through your veins properly.

              Higher than 0.2 amps and your heart is clamped down by the severe muscular contraction, which actually turns out to be better for you since it doesn’t kill your heart and you have a much higher likelihood of survival.

              So far on this aside — back to the main thoughts…

              they are here for you… you’re already dead…

              ESDTR: 10

              Pigs are nasty hateful demons who want nothing other than your bones for their bread.

              Bricktop can tell you more about the awful uses of these wicked creatures.

              Mason Verger met an horrible end at their mouths — don’t watch it if you’re squeamish.

              The author of the aforementioned Popular Mechanics article writes about pigs as follows:

              This probably goes without saying: I’ll never forget when that pig bit me in the face. I had been bitten by a German shepherd before, so I knew what it felt like to have animal teeth in me, but the way that pig tore so firmly into my cheek made a more lasting impression. I have taken delight in eating bacon since. “I like pigs,” Sherrie Webb told me when I called not to ask her whether pigs are killers but to warn her that they are. She’s the director of animal welfare for the National Pork Board ( and an obvious pig apologist. “They can be quite friendly,” she said. You poor doomed woman, I thought. The CDC keeps exhaustive statistics about how Americans die. Unfortunately, the swine clearly got to the CDC, too. Killer pigs fall under a broad “contact with other mammals” category, which means they can blame cows for their crimes. There are countless stories of people being eaten by pigs, including an Oregon hog farmer whose dentures were all that remained of him. Police couldn’t determine whether the farmer died from natural causes and was eaten or was murdered and eaten. I know. “At least in the domestic herd, pigs aren’t overtly aggressive,” Webb said. I was about to question her credentials when she added: “Pigs explore using their nose and mouth. They might chew on their pen mates, but I’m not sure that’s blood-motivated.” She made the case that pigs are like us. When they feel threatened, they will try to escape but might also fight back. Happy pigs make low, contented noises. Alarmed pigs squeal, and that’s when humans should start assessing their own behavior and its possible consequences. “Treat pigs well and with understanding,” Webb said, “and they’re not any more dangerous than any other mammal.” I thought back to that pig whose hot breath I can still feel in my nightmares. I swear I didn’t do anything to earn his bite. I was only trying to castrate him.—Chris Jones


              ESDTR: 5

              In the end, what is true is that EVERYTHING can kill you under the right circumstances — even a seemingly innocent little girl can burn down your house…

              Can never be too careful… can never be too paranoid…

              Can never believe everything you read…

              Poison garden | 2017-05-31

              Around 1750, the 1st Duke of Northumberland hired the well-known and talented gardener Capability Brown to design and maintain the gardens around his home, Alnwick (ANN-ick) Castle.
              The 3rd Duke of Northumberland was a plant collector and expanded the gardens, filling them with all manner of lovely things.
              The Anlwick Garden was magnificent and prized in England until the Second World War when, as part of the Dig for Victory campaign, it was turned over and re-purposed for crop farming.

              The formerly glorious gardens fell into disrepair until 1997 when Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, redeveloped the gardens, spending 42 million pounds to bring them to past their former glory.
              The entirety of the gardens is magnificent again and replete with the largest tree house in the world and many water features.
              It was the duchess’ intent to not simply have a beautiful garden for all to enjoy but to also make it a place of learning for young people.
              Her initial thought was to create an ‘apothecary garden’ in which all the plants were used to create medicines or other helpful substances.
              However, she eventually decided that teaching children how Aspirin comes from tree bark was liable to lose their interest in a real hurry.
              So, instead, she opted to create a place in which all the plants can kill you and in which many of the plants are available for sale at local garden centres in England.

              Thus, she raised the well-walled and gated Poison Garden of Alnwick.

              One of the head gardeners of the gardens is a lovely and terminally British man named Trevor Jones. Find a link to his description of the garden at the bottom.
              In his delightful commentary, he walks us through the gardens, noting before we enter that you are:

              Not allowed to touch or smell or stand too close

              … to anything in the poison garden. Fantastic!

              So, what’s in the garden, you ask?

              I encourage you to visit the A to Z Links on the Poison Garden Fan Site to explore the

              150 different species of plant on display in the garden.

              I will note a few that stand out to me:

              Monk’s Hood | Aconitum napellus

              Popular garden plant contains aconitine small amounts result in gastrointestinal upset and severe reduction of heart rate, which often results in death it tastes really gross, so it doesn’t kill many people

              Strychnine Tree | Strychnos nux-vomica

              Native to India, strychnine is among the deadliest alkaloids on the planet, predominately used to kill feral mammals causes severe muscle spasms within minutes and, with high dose, respiratory failure and brain death occur within 15 minutes

              Hemlock | Conium maculatum

              Fabled poison used to kill Socrates alkaloid Coniine disrupts the central nervous system, resulting in paralysis and eventual suffocation

              Castorbean | Ricinus Communis

              Produces castor oil which is used as a preservative and medicine also produces ricin, the single most deadly poison on earth a dose of purified ricin powder relative to a few grains of salt will kill an adult basically, it stops cells from processing carbohydrates which, in turn, results in total cell death in all cells in the body. If you breathe it, it will kill your nose and lungs if you eat it, it will kill your mouth and stomach and all the rest of your digestive tract if you get it on your skin and you have a small cut, it will start from there and kill everything it touches.

              Foxglove | Digitalis

              Used to create Digoxin, which is prescribed to treat arrhythmia overdose will cause gastrointestinal mayhem, drooling, wildly high or low heart rates, and death

              Deadly Nightshade/Belladonna | Atropa belladonna

              4 berries from this plant are enough to kill a child historically, in Venice, ladies would squeeze berry juice into their eyes to dilate their pupils, making them prettier to men (pretty lady = bella donna) and making them blind at a young age… smart move… guess that’s how you make a Venetian Blind (harhar)

              Angel’s Trumpets | Brugmansia suaveolens

              The pollen is an hallucinogenic British ladies used to put these plants on their tables during their afternoon tea and sprinkle bits of the pollen in their drinks, resulting in hilarious conversations and, potentially, death you can buy this plant from garden centers

              Giant Hogweed | Ruta graveolens

              This plant is also available in garden centers it is phototoxic for up to 7 years, which means that if you get some of its resin on your skin and then expose that resin to sunlight, it will severely burn you (i.e. 3rd degree burns) for the next 7 years

              Naked Ladies/Autumn Crocus | Colchicum autumnale

              Popular garden plant due to unusual growing season contains colchicine which, if ingested, causes 24hrs of gastrointestinal horror followed by effects similar to cholera, including cardiovascular collapse, multi-organ failure, and blood clots throughout the body

              Laurel | Prunus laurocerasus

              Produces cyanide from crushing the leaves cyanide prevents oxygen from reaching the central nervous system, causing death used by entymologists to kill insects without damaging them physically

              Henbane | Hyoscyamus niger

              Produces a pungent odour that causes drowsiness or loss of consciousness ingestion causes many hallucinogenic responses overdose causes certain death doesn’t kill pigs and they, reportedly, enjoy the effects of eating it!

              Helleborus viridis | Green hellebore

              Entirety of the plant is poisonous also called ‘bastard hellebore’, ‘bear’s foot’, or ‘boar’s foot’ causes severe vomiting and seizures — consequently was used to treat worms in children, traditionally, and to treat lice
              As you can guess from glancing at the A to Z index, this list could go on for a long time.
              Blessedly, I’ll stop here…

              So far on the Poison Garden

              Additional Links

              Trevor Jones describes his garden with tribute to his wife at the end

              Tom Scott (my man) introduces the garden and features Trevor Jones

              Collective animal names | 2016-08-24

              i’ve also included a column pertaining to the family role names for the same animals (male female offspring). not all of those are filled out because many of them are uninteresting — the ones that are tickled my fancy for one reason or another.

              Animal Group Name Family (male
              female offspring)
              Alligators Congregation bull cow hatchling
              Apes Shrewdness blackback/silverback
              ape baby
              Asses Pace jack/jackass jennet/jenny
              Barracudas Battery
              Bats Cloud male female pup
              Sloth, Sleuth boar
              sow cub
              Birds (small grounded) Dissimulation cock hen chick
              Bloodhounds Sute
              Bobolinks Chain
              Buffalo Obstinancy
              Cats (General) Clowder, Clutter,
              Pounce, Nuisance,
              Glorying, Glare
              tom queen kitten
              Kindle, Intrigue
              Cats (Wild) Destruction
              Cheetahs Coalition
              Crows Murder, Storytelling
              Cowardice dog
              bitch pup
              Doves (Turtle) Piteousness cock hen squab
              Paddling drake
              duck duckling
              Dunlins Fling
              Emus Mob
              Falcons Cast tiercel falcon chick
              Ferrets Business, Busyness,
              Cast, Fesnying
              jill kit
              Finches Charm
              Flamingoes Flamboyance
              Fox Leash, Skulk, Earth, Lead reynard vixen kit
              Giraffes Tower bull
              doe calf
              Gnus Implausibility bull cow calf
              Hawks Cast, Kettle (flight), Boil (spiraling) tiercel hen eyas
              Hippopotamuses Bloat bull
              cow calf
              Hummingbirds Charm
              Jellyfish Smack male
              female ephyna
              Lapwings Deceit
              Larks Exaltation, Ascension
              Leopards Leap leopard leopardess cub
              Lizards Lounge
              Magpies Murder, Charm
              Moles Labor male
              female pup
              Owls Parliament, Stare male female owlet
              Parrots Pandemonium
              Peacocks Ostentation, Pride peacock peahen peachick
              Pheasants Bouquet (take-off)
              Porcupines Prickle male female procupette
              Raccoons Gaze boar
              sow cub
              Rattlesnakes Rhumba
              Ravens Unkindness, Storytelling
              Rhinoceroses Crash, Stubbornness
              Salamandars Congress
              Squirrels Dray, Scurry buck doe pup/kit/kitten
              Stingrays Fever
              Tigers Streak, Ambush tiger tigress cub/whelp
              Wildebeest Implausibility bull cow calf
              Wombats Wisdom jack
              jill joey
              Zebras Zeal, Dazzle stallion mare colt/foal

              my personal favourites are: obstinacy of buffalo, pounce & glare of cats, boil of hawks, deceit of lapwings, unkindness of ravens, and wisdom of wombats

              but, really, all of them are awesome!

              so far on collective animal names

              Scavenger survival | 2016-08-17

              finally, the buzzards get to move in and they start eating what’s left over including, in the case of the bearded vulture, the bones.

              Is anyone knowledgable about the nose/mucus? My OCD issue.

              So, I have an issue, and I know it is OCD-related. But honestly, I don't know the facts either, and I'm hoping if anyone can answer these questions then it would help me reason through this (though I'm going to look online too, so far it's a little tough to find the info I'm looking for). So if you want to humor me, great. And I just need to "work through this".

              So, everynight, after I brush my teeth, I bring the water up to my nose with my hands (cupped) and kind of halfway suck it up my nose, then exhale, and I do this repeatedly. If you do this to each side, repeatedly, it eventually loosens whatever mucus is in the nose, then you can blow it out with a tissue. I started doing it just as a way to unclog my nose, or maybe I started doing it on accident (accidentally getting water up my nose while washing my face, then realizing it unclogged my nose of all mucus and that felt good).

              At any rate, now I do it every night, and it has turned into this loooonnng process (splash each nostril about 20 times?) that I want to stop, because hunching over the sink is painful on my back, and it does take time that I could be sleeping. I splash my face over and over until I feel both nostrils are perfect, then I blow my nose. But the problem is, I am sooo used to doing this, that now I am afraid to go to bed without my nostrils free of every speck of mucus. it feels weird to me now, and I feel like I'm not getting enough oxygen. Is that strange?

              So tonight, I decided not to do it at all (but I hate it, read on. ). Honestly, I do think the process of brushing my teeth forms some mucus in the nasal area-just having the mouth open like that, or maybe its the toothpaste and the drooling? I dunno. So of course my nose does feel more clogged than normal, though I can breathe through it fine without opening my mouth. However, I feel it's only getting about 50% of the air through that I'd be getting if the nose was perfectly clear.

              So I'm wondering. do most people go to bed with noses partially mucus-y (not loose mucus that blows out, but just some mucus way up there)? The feeling of clear nasal passages is just that. VERY clear-feeling. I miss that feeling. If I try to blow my nose, nothing would come out, because what is in there is pretty far up there and not really "loose" or "runny." But it is blocking my breathing vs a totally clear nose. However, is that a bad thing? That is my main question.

              I am not sure if I worry/worried about this (especially in the beginning now its habit) because my body feels intuitively that I'm not getting good oxygen and something doesn't feel right? Or if everyone feels like this, and I have just taught myself that that is not normal? Thoughts?

              Do you all normally feel more clogged or mucus-y after brushing your teeth? Also, I've stopped brushing in the morning, especially a deep brush that goes to the back molars, to avoid this drama, but also to save energy. If I do a light brush, I don't get more mucus. So sometimes I wonder if it is actually a gag reflex kicking in? Because more mucus starts to form, the further back in my mouth I brush. Then the feeling of fullness goes up to my nose. I don't know if THAT is normal? Maybe I do have something unusual going on?

              And I'm afraid to ask my ENT doctor, because I don't need them to think I"m crazy. they are helping me out with my apnea surgery!

              Can Naegleria fowleri enter through the eyes ( example rinsing/splashing eyes with water) - Biology

              Bio-Terror Agents


              Abstract: It was reported in the Durango Herald Sunday that a man who contracted a rare, devastating case of necrotizing fasciitis is recovering from the infection that took much of his right leg.

              The survivor of this horrible disease, Joseph Williams, was treated, including being put into a medically-induced coma, and ultimately received multiple skin grafts was recently discharged from the University of Colorado Hospital in Denver.

              However, according to his wife, Jennifer, more surgeries are a possibility plus a lengthy course of physical therapy.

              The “ flesh eating bacteria ” is actually a relatively rare bacterial infection technically known as necrotizing fasciitis.

              The most common organism that causes this devastating disease is Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep), however other bacteria have been implicated (Clostridia andVibrio for example).

              It’s called “flesh eating bacteria” because of how it destroys the skin and soft tissue.

              This is the same bacteria that cause relatively mild infections like strep throat and impetigo . However, rarely strains of the bacteria produce toxins and enzymes that make the infection spread quickly through the flesh. Though rare, it is very serious with a fatality rate of approximately 30%.

              So how does someone get infected? Usually the bacteria enter the body through an opening in the skin, quite often a minor opening, like a paper cut.

              It can also happen following a major trauma or surgery, and in some cases, there appears to be no identifiable point of entry.

              The bacteria is transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact with the secretions of from someone who has group A strep and this gets on a person’s hands or directly into a wound.

              According to WebMD, the symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis start with pain from an injury that gets better over 24 to 36 hours and then suddenly gets worse. Often the pain is much worse than would be expected from the size of the wound or injury.

              Other symptoms may include fever, chills, and nausea and vomiting or diarrhea. The skin usually becomes red, swollen, and hot to the touch. If the infection is deep in the tissue, these signs of inflammation may not develop right away.

              The symptoms often start suddenly (over a few hours or a day), and the infection may spread rapidly and can quickly become life-threatening. Serious illness and shock can develop in addition to tissue damage. Necrotizing fasciitis can lead to organ failure and, sometimes, death.

              The infection is diagnosed based on symptoms and how fast the infection progresses. It can also be cultured to identify the offending bacteria.

              Typically, by the time a person is seen by their doctor they are very sick. This medical emergency requires hospital admittance, high dose antibiotics and supportive care for organ failure and shock (Examiner, 2011) .

              Title: Flesh-Eating Bug That You Can Catch On The Bus Or Train Is Spreading In The UK
              Date: February 2, 2012
              Source: Daily Mail

              Abstract: A flesh-eating form of pneumonia that is easily passed between healthy people on public transport is spreading across the UK, experts have warned.

              The deadly strain of MRSA called USA300 passes easily through skin-to-skin contact. It can also survive on surfaces and so has the potential to be picked up on crowded buses and tubes.

              It was first seen in the U.S but cases are now being reported in the community and not just hospitals in Britain.

              Dr Ruth Massey, from the Department of Biology and Biochemistry at the University of Bath, said extra vigilance was required around this and similar MRSA bugs known as PVL-positive community acquired strains.

              USA300 is resistant to treatment by several front-line antibiotics and can cause large boils on the skin. In severe cases, USA300 can lead to fatal blood poisoning or a form of pneumonia that can eat away at lung tissue.

              Dr Massey said there were 1,000 cases of PVL-positive community acquired MRSA in England in the last year, of which 200 were USA300 strains.

              'These community-acquired strains seem to be good at affecting healthy people - they seem to be much better than the hospital ones at causing disease.

              'They don't rely on healthcare workers moving them around, which the hospital ones seem to.'

              Dr Massey said USA300 is 'a really big issue in the U.S. and it's starting to emerge here.

              'But hopefully because we are aware of it and are working to understand it, it won't become as big of a problem (in the UK).'

              In a new research paper published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, Dr Massey and colleagues analyse the way community-acquired MRSAs are able to adapt and fine tune themselves to spread outside of hospitals.

              MRSA bacteria in hospitals has not been able to migrate into the community in the same way.

              Dr Massey said: 'Our research found that the composition of the cell wall of the bacteria is critical to the community-acquired bacteria being more toxic.

              'The ability of the MRSA bacteria to secrete toxins is one of the main ways it causes disease.

              'Using a sensing system, it carefully controls when it switches on its ability to do this, so as not to cause disease until it is firmly established within the human.

              'Many antibiotics target the cell walls of harmful bacteria, and to resist this, the bacteria have to make changes to their cell wall.'

              Community-acquired MRSA strains have cell walls that are different to those seen in hospitals, allowing them to sense their environment and switch toxin expression on at the right time.

              Justine Rudkin, a PhD student working on the project, said: 'The community-acquired bacteria has evolved further, and is able to maintain a higher level of toxicity while also resisting treatment from antibiotics, making it a much larger problem.'

              She added: 'While we are constantly learning more about MRSA, there is a serious threat posed by this newer strain of bacteria capable of causing disease and even death in perfectly healthy people.

              'We need to respond seriously to this threat as it reaches Britain from the United States.'

              Chris Thomas, professor of molecular genetics at the University of Birmingham, said: 'The key message is that strains of MRSA that are spreading in the community are better able to infect the young and healthy, precisely because they are not actually trying so hard to be resistant as the bugs that have been encountered in hospitals for many years.'

              He said there was now a 'need to worry about community super bugs that are fine tuned to spreading outside of hospitals and we all need to be extra vigilant about hygiene and unnecessary use of antibiotics.'

              A spokeswoman for the Health Protection Agency (HPA) said: 'The paper highlights some important observations which helps us understand at the molecular level why hospital strains of MRSA are less virulent than the so-called community MRSA strains.

              'We have known about community MRSA for over a decade and, whilst they are responsible for a high burden of disease in North America, this is not the case in the rest of the world.

              'In England we have seen sporadic cases of this type of MRSA most often causing boils and abscesses, but it has not emerged as a major public health issue in this country.

              'The HPA are carrying out active surveillance of this type of bacteria and advise healthcare professionals on correct infection control procedures to reduce the likelihood of spread' (Daily Mail, 2012) .

              Title: Flesh-Eating Parasite Eats Man's Face, Back
              Date: March 6, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: A flesh-eating parasite ate away at a man’s face and back while he was vacationing in South America with his fiancé, according to the Discovery Channel.

              Adam Spencer, 23, from Veneta, Ore., will be featured in an upcoming episode of Discovery's Monsters Inside Me.

              Spencer had just proposed to his girlfriend Shalynn Pack when a strange scab began developing on his face as the pair crossed the Bolivian salt flats.

              He dismissed the wound as nothing serious however, over time the scab began to grow and spread across the face. Soon pus began seeping from the sore, according to the Discovery Channel.

              Spencer received antibiotics from a local doctor, and upon returning home to Oregon, he also sought out the advice of Dr. Stephan Ames of Thurston Medical Clinic in Springfield.

              '”Adam came in with a wound on the right side of his face. It was firm, but soft and mushy on the inside,” Ames told the Discovery Channel. “I was concerned it was a staph infection, which can infect multiple organs and could cause him to die.”

              Ames prescribed penicillin, but while tests found no evidence of a staph infection, the wound continued to grow.

              “We didn't know when it was going to stop,” Pack told the Discovery Channel. “It was encroaching his eye. It was pretty frightening.”

              Spencer also began to have trouble swallowing when large white lumps began to grow in the back of his throat. Meanwhile, the sores spread to his back.

              Spencer visited Dr. William Muth of the Samaritan Infectious Disease Clinic in Corvallis, Ore., who diagnosed him with Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis, caused by a single-cell parasite known as Leishmania.

              The parasite had likely been transmitted by a small sandfly bite in the Amazon. It was feeding off Spencer’s immune cells, which were trying to fight off the disease.

              Muth prescribed a 21-day treatment that finally drove out the parasite and healed the sores. Spencer is back to planning his upcoming wedding with Pack (Fox News, 2012) .

              Title: Against Odds, Woman Shows Signs Of Recovery After Contracting Flesh-Eating Bacteria
              Date: May 10, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: Despite the odds of survival being "slim to none," Aimee Copeland, the 24-year-old University of West Georgia graduate student battling a deadly flesh-eating virus, is showing signs of recovery and is still fighting to survive.

              "Aimee has made drastic improvements today," Andy Copeland, Aimee's father, told "Yesterday, she had some setbacks. She was really on the ventilator 100 percent, but now she's only requiring 60 percent of the ventilator, and last night she moved her arms."

              Copeland also said Aimee's digestive system is showing signs of improvement, which the doctors told him is an extremely good sign.

              "When you're in this state, your intestines can actually atrophy," Copeland said. "So you're wondering, 'Will her intestines actually work?' Well her intestines are working just fine."

              Aimee has even started moving and opening her eyes, just small miracles for the Copeland family.

              "She's a little agitated, but she's showing more signs of her personality," Copeland said. "She's restrained, so she started to get angry, but she responded to me as I tried to soothe her. These are just small things, but really mean so much."

              Unfortunately, despite the improvements Aimee has made the past couple of days, Copeland said she still faces a big uphill battle.

              “The bacteria that attacked her has basically shut her capillaries down,” Copeland explained. “So it appears that because of the combination of the bacteria and medication she’s taking, we'll probably have to remove her hands from her wrist, as well as her foot. It's something we'll have to get over, but it's something we're going to miss.”

              “We’re really just glad to have her alive, because she has such a beautiful mind,” Copeland added.

              The whole ordeal started for Aimee when a zip lining accident went from bad to much, much worse. Just one week ago, Aimee was enjoying a trip kayaking down a creek with some of her friends in Carrollton, Ga. But when she stopped to ride on a homemade zip line along the water, the line snapped and cut a large gash in her left calf.

              Initially, Aimee had gone to the emergency room at the Tanner Medical Center in Carrollton on Tuesday after she had received the gash. She thought the ordeal was over after the doctors stapled her leg up with 22 staples and told her to take pain medication, according to her father.

              But Aimee returned to the hospital Wednesday after she continued to complain of severe pain in her leg. She was prescribed pain killers and sent home yet again.

              The pain still did not subside, so a friend drove a “pale and weak” Aimee to Tanner Medical again Friday morning. When she arrived, an ER doctor diagnosed her with necrotizing fasciitis – a flesh-eating bacteria disorder of the deep layers of the skin – in her damaged leg. The bacteria had entered Aimee's body through the gash she had received during the zip lining accident.

              “The surgeons advised me that they wanted to try to save her leg, but at this point saving her life took precedence,” Aimee’s father wrote on the Facebook page. “They removed all of the infected tissue and advised that she would have limited, if any use of her leg.”

              Aimee was then airlifted to JMS Burn Center in Augusta, Ga., where doctors rushed her into surgery and performed a high-hip amputation of her left leg. After surgery, Copeland suffered cardiac arrest, but the doctors were able to resuscitate her. It was at this point that the doctor’s told Copeland and his wife that Aimee’s chances of survival were “slim to none.”

              “We actually sat down with her cardio pulmonologist,” Copeland said. “I understand he was try to paint a realistic picture, but he really hit us with that. But then I said, ‘Hey, Aimee is not your average patient.’”

              To keep people updated on his daughter’s status, Copeland set up the Facebook page “Believe and pray for a miracle to happen for Aimee Copeland.” Through the page, friends and family also have been calling for blood donations to help save Aimee’s life. So far, the page has garnered over 17,000 followers, all sending their thoughts and prayers to the Copeland family.

              “The bottom line is that I've been asking people to pray and give blood,” Copeland said. “I want to create awareness about giving blood for this particular disease. Blood is required to save her.”

              Copeland says that he is certain his daughter will make it through these tragic circumstances, and he cannot wait to see Aimee smile again.
              “I will never quit on my daughter,” Copeland said. “And my daughter will be a remarkable miracle the world's going to enjoy. The more I put that out there, the more people will rally. That's what’s keep her going” (Fox News, 2012) .

              Title: $500,000 In Stolen Pathology Equipment May Have Hazardous Materials [Flesh Eating Bacteria]
              Date: May 11, 2012
              Source: Orlando Sentinel

              Abstract: Whoever stole some discarded equipment from outside a pathology lab may have gotten more than he or she bargained for.

              Orlando police say the equipment, worth about $500,000, is contaminated with a substance that could eat away at human skin.

              A pickup hauling a trailer pulled up to Florida Hospital Center for Diagnostic Pathology, 2855 N. Orange Ave., on May 3 and took the equipment from an enclosed area near a large garbage bin, police said. The theft was not reported until Friday, said St. Vince Ogburn, a police spokesman (Orlando Sentinel, 2012) .

              Title: Blood Drive Set For Flesh-Eating Bacteria Survivor
              Date: May 15, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: A blood drive is being held at University of West Georgia for a student fighting a flesh-eating bacteria that threatens her life.

              Aimee Copeland 's left leg has been amputated, and her parents say she will likely lose her fingers as well after the infection spread rapidly through her body.

              The 24-year-old graduate student has been in critical condition at an Augusta hospital after the bacteria took hold in a cut she received while zip-lining over a river.

              Gary Duke, Copeland's boss at the cafe where she works in Carrollton, tells WSB-TV that townspeople are doing all they can to help her. The blood drive is planned for 2 p.m. to 7 p.m. in the school gym (Fox News, 2012) .

              Title: Flesh-Eating Bacteria Patient Sees Bacteria-Ravaged Hands
              Date: May 16, 2012
              Source: USA Today

              Abstract: A Georgia graduate student fighting a rare flesh-eating infection has been looking at her ravaged hands and asking about the damage, all without tears, her father said Wednesday.

              What Aimee Copeland still doesn't know is that doctors plan to amputate her all of her fingers, just as they had to remove most of her left leg in order to save her life.

              "Her fingers are basically mummified. The flesh is dead," Andy Copeland said in a phone interview from Doctors Hospital in Augusta more than two weeks after a zip-lining accident left a gash in his daughter's leg that developed into the infection.

              Copeland's father said she held one of her hands close to her face Wednesday and asked family members about it. He said they told her "your hands have been damaged … and we're trying to bring back as much of the life into the hands as possible."

              "She was well accepting," Andy Copeland said. "No tears or anything."

              The 24-year-old student from an Atlanta suburb remains in critical condition as she battles an infection called necrotizing fasciitis. Doctors initially feared they might have to remove her remaining foot and both hands. But her father said she now faces losing only her fingers after two days of treatment using a hyperbaric chamber, in which patients breathe pure oxygen to boost white blood cells and accelerate healing. Flesh on her palms that had been purple was turning pink again, he said.

              Copeland's father said she was still unaware of plans to amputate her fingers, an emotional disclosure that will likely require a counselor's help.

              "We don't know if she's aware of her (amputated) leg yet," he said. "We're in a don't ask, don't tell policy."

              The flesh-eating bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila, emit toxins that cut off blood flow to parts of the body. The affliction can destroy muscle, fat and skin tissue.

              Copeland contracted the infection days after she suffered the deep cut May 1 when the zip line snapped over rocks in the Little Tallapoosa River near the University of West Georgia , where she studies psychology.

              The bug is found in warm and brackish waters. Many people exposed to these bacteria don't get sick. When illnesses do occur, it's often diarrhea from swallowing bacteria in the water. Flesh-eating Aeromonas cases are so rare that only a handful of infections have been reported in medical journals in recent decades.

              In addition to the damage to her extremities, Copeland is on a respirator and a dialysis machine as her lungs and kidneys recover. Doctors also had to remove much of the skin from her torso to keep the infection from spreading, her father said.

              Though still heavily medicated, Copeland has become more alert and communicates with her parents and older sister despite the breathing tube in her throat. Her father said Wednesday doctors were removing that tube and inserting another directly into her trachea to make her more comfortable.

              "If they take the tube out, I believe reading her lips is going to be a lot easier," he said. "And she might be able to actually cover the tube up and be able to talk."

              Andy Copeland said his daughter has been asking for her cell phone, her laptop and a book to read, but is still in no condition to use any of those things. He said her sister, Paige, has been reading to her from a book on meditation (USA Today, 2012) .

              Title: New S.C. Mom Is Latest Victim Of 'Flesh-Eating Bacteria'
              Date: May 17, 2012
              Source: USA Today

              Abstract: A South Carolina woman who gave birth to twins days ago is the latest victim of "flesh-eating bacteria."

              WLTX-TV in Columbia reports that Lana Kuykendall, 36, is being treated at Greenville Memorial Hospital. "Right now, just very worried, very upset, " Krissy Davison, a friend of Kuykendall, told the station from the hospital. "Still in disbelief that here is my friend, who just had these two beautiful babies, and now she is incubated upstairs and not able to enjoy the bonding experience and enjoy the babies."

              The news of the latest attack of the disease comes days after reports that Aimee Copeland, 24, a grad student in Georgia, lost her leg and part of her abdomen battling the bacteria.

              Darren Kuykendall told WYFF-TV in Spartanburg, S.C., that his wife's vitals and blood work are good and physicians remain positive.

              "It's devastating, very devastating, very overwhelming, probably the worst thing I've ever done in my entire life," Darren Kuykendall told WYFF from the hospital.

              Lana Kuykendall gave birth to twins Ian and Abigail on May 7 at an Atlanta hospital but felt pain in her leg after the couple brought their newborns home to Piedmont.

              Physicians don't know how Kuykendall contracted the disease, less commonly known as necrotizing fascitis, but it's commonly spread through a cut or open wound.

              Experts say the bacteria that causes the disease is more common than most people realize.

              "These are 'people bacteria' that live on us," state epidemiologist Jerry Gibson told WLTX. "It's really spread on fingers from person to person. We rub our nose . it spreads all over.

              "It's a rare but really scary infection," Gibson said. "It's caused by two usually common bacteria, streptococcus and staphylococcus aureus, and we all have them on our body. Then every once in a while they invade and cause a very serious disease. These bacteria have got all these powerful ways of attacking us, and every now and then something turns that on and they go full blast. And the problem is we just don't know how to predict that and prevent it.

              Although there are two recent cases in the Southeast, Gibson says the bacteria doesn't normally infect people in clusters.

              "It's just chance, it doesn't mean we're going to see another one any sooner. Please don't panic. It's very uncommon here," he says.

              Gibson says if you get a cut or wound there are some signs to pay attention to: "If it gets red, it gets painful, it gets swollen up, it's not just an everyday local infection, and then you get care fast" (USA Today, 2012) .

              Title: Reports Emerge Of Third Flesh-Eating Bacteria Victim With Ties To Georgia
              Date: May 18, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: A third case of flesh-eating bacteria has emerged with ties to Georgia, myFOXatlanta reported.

              A landscaper from Cartersville is in critical condition at Doctors Hospital in Augusta battling the potentially deadly disease. That's the same place University of West Georgia graduate student Aimee Copeland is being treated.

              A Piedmont, S.C. mom is also fighting the infection days after giving birth in Atlanta at Emory University Hospital Midtown.

              The new flesh-eating bacteria case involves Bobby Vaughn. The Cartersville landscaper was injured at work when he fell from a tree two weeks ago and suffered a cut to his side.

              "He got a cut on his side and took him to the hospital. My son said he was throwing up…They treated him, he chose to leave. He got up the next morning it had spread," said Amanda Nicholson, Vaughn's ex-wife.

              Nicholson said that Vaughn spent about a week at Cartersville Medical Center. She says the infection quickly spread from his abdomen to his upper back. He was eventually transferred to Doctor's Hospital in Augusta.

              "It was kind of scary at first because, for some reason it was like every two days, when they would go to check, it was spreading, still. And so finally that was when they sent him to Augusta," said Nicholson.

              According to Nicholson, Vaughn has undergone five surgeries as doctors remove nearly two pounds of infected tissue (Fox News, 2012) .

              Title: Flesh-Eating Bacteria Consumed Man's Penis After Surgery, Says Lawsuit
              Date: May 18, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: A man suing after a major medical mistake left him disfigured gave testimony Thursday that revealed the intimate details of his misery.

              Late Thursday afternoon, Enrique Milla testified at the Miami-Dade County Courthouse from his new home in Lima, Peru via Skype. He said he wanted a penile implant to improve his sex life in 2007. "About a year before I realized I had problems," Milla said through a translator. "I had problems having intimate relations with my wife. As time went by, that problem got worse."

              Milla's attorney argues that an anesthesiologist overlooked his client's pre-existing medical conditions, which resulted in Milla having no more external male genitalia. According to the lawyer, Milla should have never been allowed to undergo elective penile implant surgery to treat erectile dysfunction back in August 2007.

              The anesthesiologist involved in the surgery, Dr. Laurentia Boeru, should have never allowed the surgery, the attorney said, because Milla had an extreme case of diabetes and high blood pressure, and his blood sugar levels were way too high on the day of his surgery. He had not seen a doctor in 15 years until that point. "Did he take your blood pressure?" asked the attorney of Milla.

              "Did he take your blood sugar?"

              Milla's attorney, Spencer Aronfeld, has argued that his client should have never been allowed to have a penile implant due to his uncontrolled diabetes. "The one and only person who cleared him for this surgery, on that day, was Dr. Boeru," said Aronfeld, "and our entire case is, that at that particular time, he should have said, 'Wait a second, let's treat the medical conditions first.'"

              Boeru swore under oath that his obligations and risks only relate to the anesthesia, not the actual implant of the penis and potential risks. "I addressed a small period of time of contact with the patient, which is the preoperative period of time," Boeru said on the stand. "My role is stopped when the epidural catheter, that's what you do in Obstetrics, is out or the patient is out of recovery."

              Milla's problems began after a Gangrene infection spread through his penis about nine days after the surgery. Aronfeld detailed the traumatic experience his client went through. "Turned into a flesh-eating bacteria that ate his penis centimeter by centimeter," he said, " and as a result of this, he has to spend the rest of his life without a functioning penis. He has to sit down to urinate. He'll never have any intimate relationships with anyone, and he's lost his manhood."

              Boeru's attorney will have a chance to question Milla in the coming days. Then jurors will have to decided of Boeru acted as his physician and at any point committed any medical malpractice (Fox News, 2012) .

              Title: Third Case Of Flesh-Eating Disease Diagnosed In Ga.
              Date: May 21, 2012
              Source: WSBTV News

              Abstract: There is now a third case of the flesh-eating bacteria in Georgia.

              Robert Vaughn, 32, of Cartersville said he is not sure how he got the infection, but on May 3, the landscape business owner had just finished a project, and when he got back to the office.

              "Just godawful pain in my groin area. It's hard to walk, hard to sit down, it just hurt, hurt all in my back," Vaughn said.

              His business partner, Justin Troup, was with him and told Channel 2 Action News, Vaughn just got violently ill.

              "He began to get sick, throwing up for about three minutes and had to go lay down. The next thing I know he's in the hospital, and he's been there ever since," Troup said.

              Vaughn said doctors told him he has a form of the flesh-eating bacteria, but he's not sure where he got it from.

              "I was weed-eating something and I may have gotten hit by something. That's the only thing I can think that happened," Vaughn said.

              At one point Vaughn was right next to Aimee Copeland in the same hospital, but his health improved and they moved him off intensive care.

              That was after he said doctors removed 2½ pounds of dead tissue from his leg.

              He is expected to make a full recovery but it still remains a mystery how he contracted the disease.

              Dr. Robin Dretler is an infectious disease specialist and said it is extremely rare for someone to contract a flesh-eating bacteria unless there is a deep cut to the body where bacteria can get past the protective layer of the skin (WSBTV News, 2012) .

              Title: Second Victim Of Flesh-Eating Bacteria Clings To Life Following Seven Operations Within Days Of Giving Birth To Twins
              Date: May 21, 2012
              Source: Daily Mail

              Abstract: A new mother infected by a flesh-eating virus is clinging to life following seven operations to try to save her.

              Lana Kuykendall fell ill shortly after being released from hospital following the birth of her twins on May 7, being readmitted just 13 hours later.

              The 36-year-old has been kept 'intubated and sedated' her brother said, at a hospital in Greenville since May 11, as she battles necrotizing fasciitis.

              The brother, Brian Swaffer, told CNN that the babies, Ian and Abigail, are doing well and are in the care of relatives, adding that their mother still has 'a long road ahead'.

              'She does respond sometimes, you can see in her blood pressure,' he said. 'She has opened her eyes a little bit at times but that's about it.

              'We don't know what the next day is going to bring, so we're just trusting the Lord. We're taking it one day at a time.'

              The infection began as a small bruise on Kuykendall's leg, though it began growing rapidly -- about one quarter of an inch an hour.

              The mother from Upstate, South Carolina, is now in critical condition at a hospital in Greenville.

              Mrs Kuykendall, 36, is the second woman in the South to contract a rare bacterial infection called necrotizing fasciitis, which can spread rapidly as it kills flesh.

              Aimee Copeland, 24, a graduate student at the University of Georgia, has last one leg, both her hands and her remaining foot after she was infected when she cut herself after falling from a homemade zip line.

              On Monday her family was offered hope after she was taken of her ventilator and breathed on her own for the first time.

              A third victim of the bacteria has been identified as 32-year-old Bobby Vaugh who became infected when he fell out of a tree and cut his side.

              Vaugh as lost two pounds of flesh from his groin and back since catching the aggressive bug. He went to the doctor after the infection site grew from the size of a peanut to that of a grapefruit and is recovering from five surgeries.

              Mrs Kuykendall is a trained paramedic, who knew something bad had happened when she spotted the spot on her leg and began experiencing pain that wouldn't go away, the Greenville News reported.

              She had been home from Emory University Hospital in Atlanta, where she gave birth to Ian and Abigail, for just 13 hours.

              Her husband took her to the hospital and within 90 minutes, she was in emergency surgery. Doctors removed the dead, infected flesh on her leg in the hopes that they could stop the bacteria from spreading.

              Before she went into surgery, Mrs Kuykendall and her husband Darren watched in horror as the infection visibly spread throughout her leg.

              'And the longer she sat there, the bigger that spot got. It was initially the size of a 3-by-5 index card. But it got bigger and bigger,' Mr Kuykendall, a firefighter, told the newspaper.

              'It moved a quarter of an inch in half an hour. Then the high-risk OB physician had a suspicion of what it was.'

              Mrs Kuykendall is currently in the intensive care unit of Greenville Memorial Hospital, breathing through a tube. And she's missing out on some of the most important early days of her newborns' lives.

              '(We're) still in disbelief that here is my friend, who just had these two beautiful babies, and now she is intubated upstairs, and not able to enjoy the bonding experience, and enjoy the babies,' her friend Kayla Moon told MSNBC (Daily Mail, 2012) .

              Title: Flesh-Eating Disease Lands Man In Same Hospital As Aimee Copeland
              Date: May 22, 2012
              Source: ABC News

              Abstract: A Georgia landscaper is battling flesh-eating disease at the same Augusta hospital as Aimee Copeland , the 24-year-old student who lost her leg to the deadly infection .

              Robert Vaughn, 32, contracted necrotizing fasciitis after cutting on his thigh while trimming weeds May 4, three days after Aimee Copeland sliced open her calf falling from a homemade zip line near the Little Tallapoosa River.

              Vaughn went to a hospital in Cartersville, Ga., where doctors gave him a prescription for antibiotics and recommended he stay for observation, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported . But Vaughn, "being the man that I am," went home and watched the painful gash swell from the size of a peanut to that of a grapefruit.

              He returned the next day and underwent emergency surgery.

              "It was that bad," he told the newspaper, describing how doctors removed some of the infected flesh and sent him to Doctor's Hospital in Augusta for more surgeries. "They told me I was close to death."

              It took five surgeries to remove more than two pounds of tissue infected by bacteria that burrowed deep into Vaughn's wound.

              "The bacteria produce enzymes that can dissolve muscle deep down," said Dr. William Schaffner, chair of preventive medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tenn., and president of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. "And because it's so deep, it can be a sneaky infection that's not immediately appreciated by the patient."

              The symptom that should ring alarm bells, according to Schaffner, is " serious, unremitting pain ."

              "An otherwise healthy individual with a seemingly superficial injury who has severe pain should have a much more thorough evaluation," he said.

              Indeed Vaughn said the pain was so bad he "could hardly move," the AJC reported.

              Vaughn is expected to undergo skin grafts today to replace some of the tissue removed during surgery.

              "They have to rebuild my groin area," he told the AJC. "But I'm feeling much better now."

              Vaughn was at one point next door to Copeland, who is slowly recovering from the infection that claimed her left leg and threatens to take her right foot and both hands. The two cases occurred 54 miles apart.

              "Ironic? I don't know what the right word is," Jeff Buzhardt, Vaughn's brother-in-law, told ABC News.

              Copeland's infection was the work of Aeromonas hydrophila , a bacteria that thrives in warm climates and fresh water like the river where Copeland was zip lining with friends.

              Doctor's Hospital spokeswoman Barclay Bishop said she couldn't comment on the cause of Vaughn's infection, stating only that he was in good condition. She added that 8.5 percent of the hospital's intensive care patients in 2011 were admitted for necrotizing fasciitis.

              "It's not uncommon for us to have these kinds of patients," she said. "[Aimee Copeland's] obviously a more extreme case than what we're used to seeing, but it's not uncommon for a hospital to have this."

              Vaughn is the third person to contract flesh-eating disease in Georgia in three weeks. Lana Kuykendall, 36, developed necrotizing fasciitis May 11 after giving birth to twins at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta. She is reportedly in critical but stable condition.

              Doctors say the cases are rare and unrelated.

              To reduce the risk of necrotizing fasciitis, all wounds big and small should be immediately cleaned, treated with antimicrobial ointment and covered with sterile bandages, according to the National Necrotizing Fasciitis Foundation (ABC News, 2012) .

              Title: Flesh Eating Bacteria Likely Lurking In Hampton Roads
              Date: May 22, 2012
              Source: WTKR News

              Abstract: As a rare flesh eating bacteria threatens the lives of three Georgia people , infectious disease experts say it is very likely the same bacteria that is lurking in the waters or soil in Hampton Roads.

              “Once it gets into the tissue and the muscle, it starts literally eating the tissue up,” said EVMS Doctor Nancy Khardori. “They’re present everywhere. They’re in soil. They’re in water.”

              Khardori told NewsChannel 3 the deadly bacteria, a rare form of Strep, likely infected the Georgia patients through a wound and started eating away at their flesh and muscle tissue.

              “Anytime a patient gets injured, gets an open wound from bacteria from the water or soil can get in, we must think of these kinds of bacteria,” said Khardori, who said areas like Hampton Roads that are surrounded by so much water are more likely to see this type of bacteria, especially during the summer.

              “People are more in contact with water,” she said.

              Khardori said you should pay special attention if you have certain symptoms after a cut or scrape.

              “[Infected people] have fever, they have chills, they’re not feeling well,” said Khardori, who has studied the disease for decades. “If the wound looks real serious and deep, they need to go see somebody.”

              The Centers for Disease Control report as many as 15,000 Americans are infected with the flesh eating bacteria each year. Only a fraction is as bad as what those in Georgia are experiencing.

              Doctor Khardori said the sooner you get to the hospital, the better.

              “It’s really a matter of time,” she said. “If it’s caught early enough, it’s completely curable” (WTKR News, 2012) .

              Title: Grandfather Battling Flesh-Eating Bacteria After Accident
              Date: May 22, 2012
              Source: My Fox Atlanta

              Abstract: A grandfather is hospitalized in Macon after contracting a life-threatening flesh-eating condition.

              Paul Bales, 67, retired to Milledgeville, but owns a restaurant in Lithonia.

              Bales suffered a cut in his leg when he fell on May 2 as he cleaned up his boat ramp at his Milledgeville house. He believed that the injury was minor, so he put a Band-Aid on it and didn't even go to the hospital.

              "It was a very small cut. as a matter of fact, he just bandaged it up and then went and played golf for the next couple of days," said his son, Mike Bales.

              However, the cut had come into contact with water so – like Aimee Copeland – he contracted dangerous flesh-eating bacteria.

              Bales' son Mike is a 16-year-veteran and captain with the DeKalb Fire Department. Capt. Bales says the flesh-eating bacteria that threatens his dad's life has already led to two tissue-removing surgeries, but there's more.

              "The antibiotics just can't fight that infection anymore because I guess that the disease – the bug eats at the vessels," Mike Bale ssaid. "Tomorrow morning, he's scheduled to be amputated below the knee. Hopefully that will get it and he doesn't have to lose anymore."

              Like the Copeland's, the Bales are asking for prayers and wondering just how their loved one, along with grad student Copeland, new mother Lana Kuykendall , and Cartersville landscaper Bobby Vaughn , all contracted the same potentially deadly condition around the same time.

              "Over the last three decades, only about 200 cases nationwide and then all of a sudden we've got four in the last month," said Mike Bales.

              Bales was initially listed in critical condition, but has stabilized and is now listed in serious condition. His doctors believe he is strong enough to endure surgery on Wednesday (My Fox Atlanta, 2012) .

              Title: Doctors Treat 6 In Omaha For Flesh-Eating Bacteria
              Date: May 23, 2012
              Source: KETV News

              Abstract: The Nebraska Medical Center said it's treated six people in the past month for a rare flesh-eating bacteria.

              One woman said it started as a simple infection. Doctors said it spread significantly, and that's when they found that she had necrotizing fasciitis, a much more dangerous type of infection.

              What was supposed to be a mother-daughter day for Jane Bisenius in Omaha turned into a day of worry.

              "I noticed in the morning a little, round pinkish-red circle on my elbow, my left elbow," Bisenius said.

              Bisenius said she started to feel worse over the course of the day, displaying flu-like symptoms. Then things got serious on the drive back home to Schaller, Iowa.

              "That red dot swelled up to about an oval the size of your cupped hand, and it became very hot and very painful," she said.

              Bisenius ended up in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber at the Nebraska Medical Center after two days in a smaller hospital.

              Doctors said necrotizing fasciitis can be caused by any number of staph or strep bacteria.

              "It can spread along there very quickly and cause a lot of tissue damage, a lot of muscle damage, to the point you could lose your extremity within a matter of hours," said Dr. Jeff Sartin.

              Sartin, who specializes in infectious diseases, said the infections can start anywhere -- particularly in water environments (KETV News, 2012) .

              Title: Son: Flesh-Eating Bacteria Struck Milledgeville Man
              Date: May 24, 2012
              Source: 13 WMAZ News

              Abstract: The family of Paul Bales tells us today he's recovering and resting after doctors partially amputated his left leg, which was infected with the flesh-eating bacteria.

              That's according to the man's son, Mike Bales of Dacula.

              Wednesday evening, Mike Bales told 13WMAZ that his father, Paul Bales was out of surgery and in stable condition after his left leg was amputated below the knee.

              He said his dad lives on Lake Sinclair near Milledgeville and injured his leg when he slipped and fell on his dock May 2.

              Paul Bales bandaged the cut and went golfing the next day but started feeling pain in his leg.

              He was admitted to the Oconee Regional Medical Center on May 5, then sent to the Medical Center of Central Georgia a week later.

              Mike Bales says doctors have told the family that his father suffers from necrotizing fasciitis, the same flesh-eating bacteria that struck north Georgia student Aimee Copeland and at least two other Georgians.

              Part of the left leg had to be amputated because the bacteria damaged blood vessels in his leg, Mike Bales said.

              After the surgery, he told us that doctors found more infected tissue in his father's leg and will have to operate again. He said they could remove more of the leg.

              Medical Center spokeswoman Janie Poulnott said Paul Bales is in stable condition but would not comment further (13 WMAZ News, 2012) .

              Title: 4th Victim Loses Leg To Flesh-Eating Bacteria
              Date: May 25, 2012
              Source: Newser

              Abstract: An astounding third victim in Georgia—the fourth in recent weeks in the Southeast—has been infected by a flesh-eating bacteria and has already lost his leg to the disease. Paul Bales cut his leg three weeks ago while removing a section of dock on Lake Sinclair in Milledgeville. "Very small cut. He just bandaged it up and played golf for the next couple of days. He didn't think it was a big deal," Bales' son told WGXA-TV . Bales' leg was amputated below the knee yesterday, and he's listed in stable condition, though doctors may have to amputate more of the limb.

              The infections, which all seem to be linked to cuts and exposure to lake or river water, are beginning to panic Georgia residents. Another victim affected by the flesh-eating bacteria in the last few weeks is from South Carolina . "People are scared they'll lose limbs. Everybody in town's scared to go out on the water," said a Lake Sinclair resident. But a Macon County family doctor cautioned against overreacting to the frightening outbreak of necrotizing fasciitis. “We have thousands of people getting in Georgia rivers and lakes and aren’t getting this,” he told the Macon Telegraph (Newser, 2012) .

              Title: Ga. Woman Fighting Flesh-Eating Bacteria Speaks For The First Time
              Date: May 29, 2012
              Source: MSNBC

              Abstract: The young Georgia woman fighting a rare flesh-eating bacteria has spoken for the first time in weeks, according to NBC News in Augusta.

              The 24-year-old graduate student's father, Andy Copeland, told NBC's WAGT that Aimee spoke on Sunday. "The first thing that she said was, 'woah.' She said, 'wow, this is amazing.' She was shocked to hear her own voice."

              Aimee has been battling necrotizing fasciitis -- a bacterial infection that can destroy muscles, skin and tissue -- since cutting her leg on a homemade zipline on May 1. Surgeons amputated her left leg at the hip, her hands and remaining foot. She remains in critical condition but has been breathing on her own since being removed from a ventilator. Last week she was able to sit up in a chair.

              Her first words are another important milestone in her difficult recovery.

              "I would say her existence, her life, is a miracle," Copeland told NBC. "Because when she arrived over at Doctor's Hospital, she basically had a less than 1 percent chance of survival."

               Her father has been recording her progress in a blog . The family's next hope is for Aimee to recover enough to leave the ICU.

              A 1996 report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated there were 500 to 1,500 cases of necrotizing fasciitis annually in the United States, with about 20 percent of them fatal. The National Necrotizing Fasciitis Foundation has said that estimate is probably low (MSNBC, 2012) .

              Title: Fifth Victim Has Emergency Surgery As Flesh-Eating Bacteria Strikes Again
              Date: June 2, 2012
              Source: Daily Mail

              Abstract: A South Carolina grandmother has become the fifth victim of the flesh-eating bacteria that has sparked terror across Georgia.

              Louise Thompson underwent emergency surgery to remove infected flesh from her leg and was in a coma for five days.

              Until being diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis she had never even heard of the bacteria, which attacks soft tissue and muscle.

              Thompson had gone to a Simpsonville doctor reporting a pain in her leg that she said felt ‘like pins sticking in my skin’ but no visible signs of infection.

              She ended up in hospital undergoing surgery to remove ‘a place the size of a regular football’, reported.

              Thompson is now recovering at the Roger C. Peace Rehabilitation Hospital in Greenville and on Friday stood up for the first time in months. She said she hopes the next step will be getting home.

              'I won't ever ignore something that's sore anymore,' she told the news channel. ‘I just really thought that I wasn't going to live.'

              Four other victims are recovering in hospitals after picking up the rare and serious disease in Georgia after picking up the bacteria from cuts and wounds.

              Doctors say the cases are unrelated and that the bacteria is not contagious.

              The aggressive disease first made headlines when it struck Aimee Copeland, a 24-year-old graduate student from Little Tallapoosa River, who cut her leg when she fell from a homemade zip-wire.

              Doctors were forced to amputate her leg, her foot and both her hands as the necrotizing fasciitis spread rapidly through her body.

              The second victim of the flesh-eating disease, Lana Kuykendall, 36, noticed the infection on the back of her leg just hours after being released from Emory University Hospital in Atlanta, where she gave birth to twins.

              She has had seven surgeries to remove the infected flesh and remains in critical condition at Greenville Memorial Hospital in South Carolina, near her home.

              Bobby Vaughn, 33, was the third victim. He has been upgraded to good condition after doctors removed two pounds of flesh from his groin.

              He became infected after he cut his thigh while cutting weeds in Cartersville.

              Paul Bales of Lake Sinclair became victim number four after he cut his leg while installing a new dock at the lake on May 1.

              It was a very small cut that didn’t stop the grandfather playing golf the next day but within four days the cut had swelled and he was forced to have his leg amputated.

              Despite the bizarre outbreak of the disease, Dr Mike Green, of Macon, said people shouldn't over-react and become paranoid about becoming infected.

              It remains very rare, he said.


              Read more:

              Necrotizing fasciitis, more commonly known as 'flesh-eating disease', is a rare but extremely vicious bacterial infection. 'Necrotizing' refers to something that causes body tissue to die, and the infection can destroy skin, muscles and fat.

              The disease develops when the bacteria enters the body, often through a minor cut or scrape. As the bacteria multiply, they release toxins that kill tissue and cut off blood flow to the area.

              Because it is so virulent, the bacteria spreads rapidly throughout the body.

              Symptoms include small, red lumps or bumps on the skin, rapidly-spreading bruising, sweating, chills, fever and nausea. Organ failure and shock are also common complications.

              Sufferers must be treated immediately to prevent death, and are usually given powerful antibiotics and surgery to remove dead tissue. Amputation can become necessary if the disease spreads through an arm or leg.

              Patients may undergo skin grafts after the infection has cleared up, to help the healing process or for aesthetic reasons (Daily Mail, 2012) .

              Title: California Pastor Dies After Fight With Flesh-Eating Bacteria
              Date: June 14, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: Friends, family and parishioners are mourning the loss of a Sacramento-area pastor who died Tuesday after a battle with necrotizing fasciitis – commonly referred to as "flesh-eating bacteria."

              Fox 40 reports Linda Snyder contracted the flesh-eating disease in January after the bacteria invaded a wound she had, possible an abscess.

              "She developed lots of complications as a result of the bacteria and surgeries to contain the bacteria," Snyder's daughter Karen told Fox 40. " Her lungs were really scarred and she had lots of lung issues and pneumonia almost nonstop."

              Snyder had served as the pastor of Sacramento's United Methodist Church for a decade, and had ministered to hundreds in the Methodist community. Karen says her mother was her best friend.

              "She was a woman of faith and that gave her the strength and passion to live her life," she told Fox 40 (Fox News, 2012) .

              Title: Woman Pastor Dies After Contracting Flesh-Eating Bug In Sixth Case Of Deadly Bacteria Identified In America
              Date: June 14, 2012
              Source: Daily Mail

              Abstract: A long-serving and well-loved pastor has been killed by a flesh-eating bacteria infection that has already left five others seriously ill.

              Linda Snyder, from Sacramento, who is a preacher at city's United Methodist Church, died this morning following a six-month battle with the deadly germ called necrotizing-fasciitis.

              She was the sixth person to have developed a flesh-eating infection over the course of the last two months.

              At the beginning of June South Carolina grandmother Louise Thompson underwent emergency surgery to remove infected flesh from her leg and was in a coma for five days.

              And last month student Aimee Copeland from Georgia College had to have her leg, her foot and both hands amputated and is still in intensive care after bacteria got into a cut she developed following a fall.

              Mrs Snyder contracted the deadly disease on January 6 after bacteria got into a wound, possibly an abscess, she had developed in December.

              Doctors tried to contain the spread of the bacteria, but her daughter Karen told Fox 40 that her mother had developed lots of complications and medical staff were unable to contain it.

              The horrible infection scarred her lungs and caused her to develop pneumonia.

              Mrs Snyder, who has given the sermons at the United Methodist Church for the last decade, was a popular figure and her daughter described her as her 'best friend.'

              'She was a woman of faith and that gave her strength and passion to live her life,' she said.

              Mrs Snyder had been married to her husband Chuck for 37 years and was said to adore her grandchildren.

              The bacterial infection is called flesh-eating because of its particularly aggressive nature - skin rapidly disappears when the germ takes hold.

              Family and friends of Mrs Snyder will gather at Japanese United Methodist Church on June 30 to say their final goodbyes.

              While fellow victim Miss Copeland is still in intensive care, on Tuesday doctors downgraded the 24-year-old's condition from critical to serious, indicating that she continues to improve after the horrible bacteria nearly took her life.

              On the same day, Lana Kuykendall, the new mother who was infected with the bacteria days after she gave birth to twins at an Atlanta hospital, improved her condition to fair after spending weeks in intensive care.

              Miss Copeland's father, Andy, said physicians believe his daughter should be out of intensive care and ready to move into the hospital's rehabilitation clinic near the end of the month.

              'She's going to have to learn to use prosthetic limbs,' he said.

              'But the critical-care phase, I believe, has come to an end.'

              He said one doctor who had expected her to spend months in intensive care was 'blown away by her rate of progress.'

              Miss Copeland was infected with the insidious bacteria after she fell from a homemade zip-line into the Little Tallapoosa River near Carrollton and cut her thigh on rocks.

              Mrs Thompson had gone to a Simpsonville doctor reporting a pain in her leg that she said felt ‘like pins sticking in my skin’ but no visible signs of infection.

              She ended up in hospital undergoing surgery to remove ‘a place the size of a regular football’ it was reported.

              Mrs Thompson is still recovering at the Roger C. Peace Rehabilitation Hospital in Greenville but on Friday she stood up for the first time in months. She said she hopes the next step will be getting home.

              She said: 'I won't ever ignore something that's sore anymore, I just really thought that I wasn't going to live.'

              Bobby Vaughn, 33, was the third victim. He has been upgraded to good condition after doctors removed two pounds of flesh from his groin.

              He became infected after he cut his thigh while cutting weeds in Cartersville.

              Paul Bales of Lake Sinclair became victim number four after he cut his leg while installing a new dock at the lake on May 1.

              It was a very small cut that didn’t stop the grandfather playing golf the next day but within four days the cut had swelled and he was forced to have his leg amputated.

              Despite the bizarre outbreak of the disease, Dr Mike Green, of Macon, said people shouldn't over-react and become paranoid about becoming infected.

              It remains very rare, he said.

              Necrotizing fasciitis, more commonly known as 'flesh-eating disease', is a rare but extremely vicious bacterial infection. 'Necrotizing' refers to something that causes body tissue to die, and the infection can destroy skin, muscles and fat.

              The disease develops when the bacteria enters the body, often through a minor cut or scrape. As the bacteria multiply, they release toxins that kill tissue and cut off blood flow to the area.

              Because it is so virulent, the bacteria spreads rapidly throughout the body.

              Symptoms include small, red lumps or bumps on the skin, rapidly-spreading bruising, sweating, chills, fever and nausea. Organ failure and shock are also common complications.

              Sufferers must be treated immediately to prevent death, and are usually given powerful antibiotics and surgery to remove dead tissue. Amputation can become necessary if the disease spreads through an arm or leg.

              Patients may undergo skin grafts after the infection has cleared up, to help the healing process or for aesthetic reasons (Daily Mail, 2012) .

              Title: Boy Develops Rash, Dies While Visiting SoCal Lake
              Date: July 18, 2012
              Source: CBS Los Angeles

              Abstract: Tevita Alatini, a 7-year-old originally from Texas, died after developing a mysterious rash under his arm while vacationing with family July 9 at Camp Pendleton’s Lake O’Neill Recreational Park near San Diego.

              Alatini was with his family when he developed a small rash that spread quickly. When he complained of a pain in his side, his family rushed him to the emergency room where he died a short time later.

              A medical examiner in San Diego is waiting for tests to help determine Alatini’s cause of death.

              “It sounds like an overwhelming strep or staph infection,” said Dr. William Thompson, who never treated Alatini but suspects the boy died from a flesh eating bacteria that devours tissue and muscle after entering the skin through a small cut.

              Dr. Thompson says he’s surprised by the number of patients he has treated in the last few years with the flesh eating bacteria. Dr. Thompson says, just like Alatini, it starts with an aggressive rash and leads to organ failure.

              “It’s disconcerting because the morbidity is so high with these patients,” said Thompson.

              Thompson says the staph or strep that causes the flesh eating bacteria likely wasn’t picked up in the lake.

              Alatini’s uncle Sione Niko spoke by phone with CBS2 and KCAL9 reporter Stacey Butler and said his nephew never entered the water.

              “He was just laying there, not feeling well and he started to feel really sick,” said Niko.

              Why most people are resistant to the infection and others aren’t remains a mystery.

              In a statement, the San Diego medical examiner’s office said Alatini had a severe infection. The exact cause of death remains undetermined pending further testing (CBS Los Angeles, 2012) .

              Title: South Carolina Boy Dies From Brain Amoeba
              Date: July 19, 2012
              Source: Examiner

              Abstract: A child from Sumter County, South Carolina has succumbed to a rare “brain-eating” amoebic infection according to health officials.

              The S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) announced Wednesday that laboratory results confirm that the unnamed boy died as a result of infection with the parasite, Naegleria fowleri .

              DHEC Director Catherine Templeton said, “We are saddened to learn that this child was exposed to the deadly organism Naegleria fowleri. While this organism is present in many warm water lakes, rivers and streams in the South, infection in humans is extremely rare.Naegleria fowleri almost always results in death.

              How do you get this microscopic creature and what exactly does it do to you? People typically get it by swimming, jumping or playing in freshwater and get the water up their nose. From there the parasite travels to the brain and spinal cord and necrotizes, or basically eats brain tissue.

              The disease is known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) and it has a very rapid progression. Typical symptoms may start after a day or two headache, fever, nausea and vomiting. Later symptoms may include seizures, irrational behavior, hallucinations and finally coma and death. The course of the disease typically last about a week. Because the symptoms are very similar to bacterial meningitis, PAM may not even be considered in the diagnosis.

              Fortunately, it’s a pretty rare disease, with only approximately 32 cases in the past decade. Unfortunately, treatment is usually unsuccessful with only a handful of people surviving infection.

              You should always assume there is some risk when swimming in freshwater. The location and number of amoeba present in a body of water varies from time to time. The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention recommends these four steps to reduce your risk of infection:

              • Avoid water-related activities in bodies of warm freshwater, hot springs, and thermally-polluted water such as water around power plants.
              • Avoid water-related activities in warm freshwater during periods of high water temperature and low water levels.
              • Hold the nose shut or use nose clips when taking part in water-related activities in bodies of warm freshwater such as lakes, rivers, or hot springs.
              • Avoid digging in or stirring up the sediment while taking part in water-related activities in shallow, warm freshwater areas (Examiner, 2012) .

              Title: Michigan Woman With Flesh-Eating Infection Necrotizing Fasciitis Dies
              Date: July 31, 2012
              Source: CBS News

              Abstract: A Farmington Hills, Mich. woman has died after battling the flesh-eating bacterial infection, necrotizing fasciitis.

              Thirty three-year-old Crystal Spencer died on July 29 in Huron Valley-Sinai Hospital in Commerce Township, Michigan, according to the Detroit Free Press . She passed away about one month after she had originally been admitted to the hospital for the disease, CBS Detroit reported.

              The family is requesting an autopsy to determine why Spencer died. Jeff Spencer, Crystal's husband, told the Detroit Free Press through his lawyer that he believes that his deceased wife got necrotizing fasciitis after she went to Botsford Hospital in Farmington Hills in June to have a large boil on her thigh lanced. Two days later, she was receiving care at Huron Valley-Sinai for the flesh eating bacteria and had a four-hour procedure to remove what her husband described as a watermelon-size piece of flesh from her thigh.

              "We have real concerns about - that she possibly got this infection - the procedure may not have been done appropriately that's the working assumption right now and we are seeking all the medical records to confirm whether that's true or not," Spencer's attorney Brian Benner told CBS Detroit.

              Spencer had to have a tracheotomy tube inserted to help her breathe and had several skin grafts to cover areas affected by the infection. Surgery was required to remove a mass from her stomach as well. She had been sent home after showing improvement, but came back to Huron Valley-Sinai Hospital, where she passed away.

              Botsford spokeswoman Margo Gorchow denied claims that Spencer got the disease at the hospital to the Detroit Free Press. She said that Dr. Gerald Blackburn, the hospital's infectious diseases director, and others had looked at Spencer's case, and they believe she did not get the bacteria from the hospital. Because she had several risk factors for the infection such as being overweight, a smoker and a diabetic - "the classic example of a person at risk" Gorchow explained - she was "more vulnerable" to developing the disease. Gorchow also pointed out that Spencer, who entered the hospital with no symptoms, failed to see a doctor the day after she had her boil removed as was recommended on her discharge instructions.

              Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and serious bacterial infection that spreads quickly through soft tissue, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Being able to accurately diagnose and treat it quickly can help with recovery. The infection can be caused by more than one type of flesh-eating bacteria, which may enter through a cut, scrape, burn, insect bite, puncture wound or any break in the skin. Chronic health conditions and diseases like diabetes and kidney disease and lower the body's ability to fight off the infection.

              There have been several high profile cases of the disease recently, including the case of Aimee Copeland from Georgia. The 24-year-old contracted the disease following a zip-lining accident in which she received a deep cut. Despite losing both hands, her left leg and her right foot, she's showing promising improvements in rehabilitation therapy and her doctors are optimistic (CBS News, 2012) .

              Title: Mich. Flesh-Eating Bacteria Patient Dies
              Date: August 1, 2012
              Source: USA Today

              Abstract: Twelve days after doctors told a woman that she was finally clear of a life-threatening flesh-eating bacteria infection, she took a turn for the worse and died.

              Crystal Spencer, 33, had spent a month in and out of three hospitals. Her husband had been visiting a rehabilitation hospital Sunday where she was about to be transferred when the hospital called and told him to return immediately.

              "As soon as I got off the elevator," the staff told him, "We've got some bad news," Jeff Spencer said.

              A team of eight doctors worked for more than an hour to resuscitate his wife, amid alarms indicating she was near death three times. She died at 3:36 p.m. Sunday.

              The family is raising money to conduct an autopsy to find out as much as they can about what happened. Results could take several weeks.

              Until about a week ago when they learned that their application for Medicaid had been approved, the Spencers had limited health insurance. Now Jeff Spencer said he has thousands of dollars in medical debt from care not covered by insurance.

              Crystal Spencer was a high school dropout and had been poor and underinsured or uninsured most of her life. She had adult-onset diabetes and weighed more than 300 pounds all of her adult life, factors that put her at higher risk of contracting the flesh-eating bacteria.

              Her death from necrotizing fasciitis has drawn national attention to a rare disease many had never heard of and others knew only by its scary name: the flesh-eating bacteria.

              Nationwide, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported 500 to 1,500 cases a year 1 in 5 people dies from it. Many others have fingers, toes or limbs amputated because the bacteria eats away at underlying layers of tissue.

              Many cases are misdiagnosed or found late, according to the National Necrotizing Fasciitis Foundation, a nonprofit founded by two women who survived the infection.

              The foundation hopes to raise awareness about a problem that needs more education and hospital early intervention programs so symptoms can be caught and treated with antibiotics or the removal of dead skin and infected tissue, a procedure called debridement. Others need surgery, including extensive skin grafts.

              Too often, patients get the wrong treatment because the infection is misdiagnosed, according to the foundation

              Jeff Spencer said doctors at Huron Valley-Sinai in Commerce Township, Mich., originally had told him his wife had a urinary tract infection. At Botsford Hospital here, where she first sought care June 23 for what she thought was a boil on her upper right thigh, an emergency department physician lanced the protruding tissue and sent her home with a Motrin prescription, said Theresa Corwin of Farmington Hills, a close friend.

              She and Spencer blame Botsford for not running blood tests to see whether white blood cell counts were elevated, a sign of infection.

              They also wonder why a doctor there called the infected area on her leg an "abscess" -- an accumulation of pus and tissue triggered by an infection -- but gave them no warning that Crystal Spencer might be contagious. Corwin, who said she is certified in CPR and first aid, was given the job of cleaning the wound and changing the dressings four to five times a day when her friend got home.

              On Monday, Botsford spokeswoman Margo Gorchow said it was unlikely that Crystal Spencer contracted necrotizing facitiitis there because the infection typically is not acquired in a hospital, and the woman had none of its symptoms when she came to the emergency department.

              A spokeswoman for Huron Valley-Sinai declined comment both Monday and Tuesday, citing patient privacy laws.

              Mostly, Spencer said he wants answers because "we don't want this to happen again to someone else" (USA Today, 2012) .

              Title: Texas Man Latest Victim Of Flesh-Eating Bacteria, Loses Leg
              Date: August 10, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: A Texas man is the latest victim of flesh-eating bacteria.

              Keith Korth, 44, of Brenham, Texas, lost his leg due to the necrotizing fasciitis, reported.

              Korth was on a fishing trip in Port O’Connor this past weekend competing in a tournament, according to family and friends. They believe that is where he contracted the flesh-eating bacteria.

              Korth’s leg was amputated two inches above the knee.

              Dr. Luis Ostrosky, of UT Health/Memorial Hermann, who did not treat Korth, told the news station it’s important to note that 99 percent of people will not contract a flesh-eating bacteria – it’s that rare.

              But the bacteria can seep into a wound as small as a paper cut, he told

              Doctors at Methodist Hospital in Houston have not commented on Korth’s condition to the TV station (Fox News, 2012) .

              Title: Man Contracts Flesh-Eating Bacteria After Fall Into Lake
              Date: August 18,
              Source: My Fox Atlanta

              Abstract: A small cut on a Milledgeville man's leg led to a life-threatening infection.

              Paul Bales, 67, slipped on a boat dock and fell into Lake Sinclair on May 2.

              "I stepped on a flat rock and slipped. I got up and had a scratch on the back of my leg, it wasn't bleeding, wasn't anything else," said Bales.

              Bales, an avid golfer, hit the greens the next day, only to pass out.

              "I was on the golf course and my cousin said I started acting very strangely…acting like I was…having a heart attack," he said.

              Bales didn't know that he contracted deadly flesh-eating bacteria while in the lake. It's the same flesh-eating condition grad student Aimee Copeland has.

              The retired restaurateur woke up two weeks and three surgeries later in a Macon hospital to learn doctors had amputated just below the knee.

              "My sons were told I was going to die," said Bales. "It was very serious."

              Bales said that he believes his injury had more to do with how he reacted to his scratch than the water.

              "Don't be scared of the water. If you get a scratch, get a cut -- take care of it. Just be careful. That's all I can say. Be careful and take care of yourself," said Bales.

              Bales is still in therapy and is waiting to be fitted for his prosthesis, which can't happen until his wounds have healed (My Fox Atlanta, 2012) .

              Title: Brain-Eating Amoeba Came From Faucet
              Date: August 23, 2012
              Source: MedPageToday

              Abstract: Two recent cases of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) show that municipal tap water can harbor the amoeba responsible for the fatal disease, according to CDC researchers.

              The deaths of two adults in Louisiana hospitals of infectious meningoencephalitis are the first recorded PAM cases in the country associated with the presence ofNaegleria fowleri in household plumbing served by treated municipal water, wrote Jonathan Yoder, MPH, of the CDC's National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Atlanta, and colleagues in Clinical Infectious Diseases online.

              The cases also are the first reports of a potential link between PAM and the use of a nasal irrigation device, the group added. As a result, the CDC recommended that patients who use a neti pot or similar device for nasal irrigation distill, filter, or boil the municipally treated tap water before use.

              The authors noted that tap water in the U.S. has not historically been a common source of exposure to N. fowleri, a free-living amoeba commonly found in warm, typically untreated freshwater such as lakes, ponds, and rivers. However, it also can be found in warm groundwater and inadequately treated swimming pools.

              PAM symptom onset occurs 1 to 7 days after exposure, and symptoms of infection are similar to bacterial or viral meningitis, including headache, fever, stiff neck, anorexia, vomiting, altered mental state, seizures, and coma.

              In the first case, a 28-year-old man abruptly developed symptoms of severe occipital headache radiating down the neck, neck stiffness, back pain, and intermittent vomiting, as well as confusion, fever, and disorientation at admission to the emergency department.

              "The patient had chronic allergic sinusitis and irrigated his sinuses with a neti pot at least once daily, using tap water to which he added a commercially available salt packet," the authors explained.

              Several amoebae were detected in samples taken from the patient's home, including Hartmannella,Vannella, and Naegleria sp. Water collected from a tankless water heater was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for N. fowleri, although the neti pot was PCR negative for N. fowleri.

              In the second case, a 51-year-old woman had presented symptoms over 3 days of altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, listlessness, fatigue, and high fever, as well as neck stiffness and thyromegaly upon examination at an emergency department.

              She also had sinus problems and regularly used a neti pot. Water samples from the kitchen faucet, shower, bathtub, and bathroom sink in her home tested positive for N. fowleri.

              While no amoebae were cultured from the neti pot, the chance of recovering organisms from a dry neti pot after 2 months was unlikely, the authors pointed out.

              Following their deaths, the CDC further investigated the source of the amoebic contamination at the patients' homes and municipal water supplies.

              In both cases, municipal water sources tested negative for the amoeba and identification of PAM only occurred after treatment was not effective -- in the first case, the patient was declared brain dead before N. fowleri infection was confirmed, while in the second, identification occurred during the autopsy.

              The agency noted that although the salt used in neti pot devices can kill off potential contaminants, the "length of contact time found in real world conditions (<1 minute) would probably not effectively inactivate N. fowleri, which probably requires hours for full inactivation."

              They further clarified that the amoebae "were not isolated from the municipal water system in the Louisiana cases Naegleria sp. were isolated from the premise plumbing, along with other amoebae."

              The authors also cautioned that N. fowleri cysts and trophozoites are fairly resistant to chlorine disinfection, but it remains uncertain how the amoeba arrived at the patients' homes and how it was able to colonize the household hot water systems.

              They noted that the geographic pattern of this climate-sensitive, thermophilic amoeba seems to be shifting up from the southern U.S., with more cases reported in warm freshwater locations after localized heat waves.

              "It is unclear whether the increased temperature and heat waves projected in climate change models will lead to further expansion of the [amoeba's] geographic range," they said (MedPageToday, 2012) .

              Title: Kaylee Queen Flesh Eating Bacteria: Michigan 18-Year-Old In Hospital After Contracting Two Kinds Of Bacteria
              Date: August 29, 2012
              Source: Huffington Post

              Abstract: Michigan teenager Kaylee Queen is in the hospital after being infected with flesh-eating bacteria (also known as necrotizing fasciitis) and another, unknown, bacteria, according to news reports.

              The 18-year-old, from Burton, had flu-like symptoms and experienced a raised, growing rash on her body, that prompted her family to bring her to the hospital last week, WJRT reported. A couple of days after arriving the hospital, doctors performed surgery on Queen to remove infected muscle and tissue.

              She had been staying in the intensive care unit at the Flint hospital, but has just been moved out to the surgery and recovery floor, according to a Facebook page set up in honor of Queen.

              Kaylee is out of ICU and has moved to surgery/recovery floor. She can now have visits from her friends. Flowers and balloons are allowed. This is the 4th floor.

              ABC 57 reported that doctors say Queen's recovery is expected to take months.

              The exact source of the bacteria is not known, "but going from the site of where it started . it looks like possibly from shaving," Dianna told WJRT.

              According to the 2007 World Journal of Emergency Surgery study, necrotizing fasciitis can be hard to diagnose -- but being too slow to identify it carries an increased risk of death.

              The first symptoms are typically seen in the first day, and include new wounds elsewhere (even though the original wound usually doesn't yet look infected), the sensation of pain somewhere near the original wound and flu-like symptoms.

              Three or four days later, the part of the body where the infected wound is may start to swell up and dark marks and rashes may occur. The actual wound may also start to have a "bluish, white, or dark, mottled, flaky appearance," according to the study. And within four or five days, the body's blood pressure may decrease and may experience septic shock. The person may also become unconscious (Huffington Post, 2012) .

              Title: Vietnam Reports First Case Of ‘Brain-Eating Amoeba’
              Date: September 2, 2012
              Source: Outbreak News

              Abstract: A 25-year-old man perished to the amoebic infection after contracting it while trying to catch fish in a pond in his hometown.

              According to a Saigon Giai Phong report , Dr. Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, director of the TropicalDiseases Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, assured the public on August 30 not to be worried about ‘Naegleria fowleri’, the brain-eating amoeba, saying it’s quite rare with only 144 cases reported since 1965 worldwide.

              Dr. Chau said that this is the first case of its kind in the country.

              How do you get this microscopic creature and what exactly does it do to you? People typically get it byswimming, jumping or playing in freshwater and get the water up their nose. From there the parasite travels to the brain and spinal cord and necrotizes, or basically eats brain tissue.

              The disease is known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) and it has a very rapid progression. Typical symptoms may start after a day or two headache, fever, nausea and vomiting. Later symptoms may include seizures, irrational behavior, hallucinations and finally coma and death. The course of the disease typically last about a week. Because the symptoms are very similar to bacterial meningitis, PAM may not even be considered in the diagnosis.

              Fortunately, it’s a pretty rare disease, unfortunately, treatment is usually unsuccessful with only a handful of people surviving infection.

              You should always assume there is some risk when swimming in freshwater. The location and number of amoeba present in a body of water varies from time to time. The Centers ofDisease Control and Prevention recommends these four steps to reduce your risk of infection:

              • Avoid water-related activities in bodies of warm freshwater, hot springs, and thermally-polluted water such as water around power plants.
              • Avoid water-related activities in warm freshwater during periods of high water temperature and low water levels.
              • Hold the nose shut or use nose clips when taking part in water-related activities in bodies of warm freshwater such as lakes, rivers, or hot springs.
              • Avoid digging in or stirring up the sediment while taking part in water-related activities in shallow, warm freshwater areas (Outbreak News, 2012) .

              Title: Brain-Eating Amoeba Suspected In Indiana Man's Death
              Date: September 4, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: An autopsy report shows a parasite known as the "brain-eating amoeba" killed a southwestern Indiana man.

              State and federal officials haven't yet confirmed 30-year-old Waylon Abel of Loogootee died of a rare infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis, but the autopsy report released Friday lists it as his primary cause of death.

              He died Aug. 7, just over three weeks after a family outing at West Boggs Lake, about 60 miles northeast of Evansville. The beach there was ordered closed Friday.

              The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has three confirmed cases of the disease this year in Minnesota, Oklahoma and South Carolina. A CDC spokeswoman says it expects to receive and test samples of the suspected Indiana case later this week.

              The parasite thrives in warm water (Fox News, 2012) .

              Title: Researchers Warn Contact Lens Wearers Of Parasite That Gnaws Through Eyeballs
              Date: September 7, 2012
              Source: CBS D.C.

              Abstract: Researchers are warning about a dangerous parasite found in dust, as well as sea, pool and tap water, that could cause blindness to contact lens users.

              The acanthamoeba parasite has the potential to gnaw through the eyeball of an exposed contact lens wearer, which results in blindness, the Belfast Telegraph reports.

              The Centers for Disease Control refers to the ocular infection as “acanthamoeba keratitis” on its official website .

              “[The parasite] is a microscopic, free-living [amoeba], or amoeba … that can cause rare, but severe infections of the eye, skin, and central nervous system,” the site states. “The [amoeba] is found worldwide in the environment in water and soil … [and] can be spread to the eyes through contact lens use, cuts, or skin wounds or by being inhaled into the lungs.”

              Symptoms reportedly include itchy, watery eyes, sensitivity to light, swelling in the upper eyelid, blurred vision, and extreme pain. Additionally, the damage to a sufferer’s vision could become permanent within a week of infection, optician Graeme Stevenson told the Daily Mail.

              “Generally it leaves you with scarring. Your cornea is your window on life and if the infection penetrates in towards the third layer you are left with scarring, with a kind of frosty windscreen,” he explained to the Daily Mail, adding that approximately 75 reported infections per year could be prevented by patients following instructions from their doctors.

              Stevenson added, “Usually a lot of it is non-compliance. It’s patients rinsing their case out in tap water or rinsing their lenses out in tap water. Potentially something as simple as swimming or showering while wearing their lenses increases the risk significantly.”

              Regular lens care and cleaning is recommended for those wishing to avoid infection. Treatment options reportedly include eye drops every 20 minutes, day and night, or time in the hospital.

              Cornea transplants have also been given in extreme cases, the Daily Mail learned.

              Though research has most recently come from the United Kingdom, scientists warn that the problem is international.

              Fiona Henriquez, researcher at the University of the West of Scotland, told the Daily Mail that it could be a “potential problem for every single contact lens wearer” (CBS D.C., 2012) .

              Title: Vietnam Reports Second Ever ‘Brain-Eating Amoeba’ Death
              Date: September 19, 2012
              Source: Examiner

              Abstract: In a follow-up to a story earlier this month , Vietnamese health officials report Wednesday, Sept. 19, the second-ever fatality due to the parasitic amoeba in the country.

              According to a Vietnam Net report Wednesday , Director of the Preventive Medicine Agency, Dr. Nguyen Van Binh, confirmed that the child who died of brain abscess in Ho Chi Minh City is actually killed by brain eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri .

              Dr. Binh continues, "The test results show that the samples of the child are positive for amoeba Naegleria fowleri."

              The 6-year-old boy from Ho Chi Minh City’s Binh Thanh District is the second case of a person being infected by the deadly amoeba in the Southeast Asian country.

              The first patient, a 25-year-old male from the southern province of Phu Yen, died from contracting the amoeba after diving in a lake near his home to catch mussels a little over a month ago.

              The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says Naegleria fowleri (commonly referred to as the "brain-eating ameba or amoeba"), is a free-living microscopic amoeba, (single-celled living organism). It can cause a very rare, but severe, infection of the brain called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The amoeba is commonly found in warm freshwater (e.g. lakes, rivers, and hot springs) and soil.

              Naegleria fowleri usually infects people when contaminated water enters the body through the nose. Once the amoeba enters the nose, it travels to the brain where it causes PAM, which is usually fatal. Infection typically occurs when people go swimming or diving in warm freshwater places, like lakes and rivers. In very rare instances, Naegleria infections may also occur when contaminated water from other sources (such as inadequately chlorinated swimming pool water or heated and contaminated tapwater) enters the nose.

              The Vietnamese Ministry of Health has warned people not to swim in lakes and rivers and limit water flow into their noses (Examiner, 2012) .

              Title: Georgia Woman Battling Flesh-Eating Bacteria
              Date: September 20, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: A Georgia mother of two is in intensive care, battling flesh-eating bacteria. Desiree Alford thought she had a bad cold or the flu, but she soon learned it was much more serious, MyFoxAtlanta reported.

              Alford's parents that say in addition to the flu-like symptoms, she had one small red spot that quickly grew. By the time they rushed her to the hospital, doctors had to do emergency surgery.

              Cathy and David Bagley said they've seen the news about Aimee Copeland and others with flesh-eating bacteria, but they never imagined it would happen to anyone they know, much less their daughter.

              "Wham – it's right here in your family. You wouldn't think that it would happen to your family," said Cathy Bagley.

              Alford, 28, initially thought she had the flu but when her condition got worse, her parents rushed her to Upson Regional Medical Center. Doctors there broke the news that she had contracted flesh-eating bacteria.

              "He said if we hadn't got her here when we did, that she wouldn't have had a chance," said David Bagley.

              The Bagleys say they have no idea where she could have gotten the bacteria. She's a stay-at-home mother of two whose world revolves around 4-year-old Jermaine and 6-year-old Ashlynn.

              Doctors have already removed two baseball-sized lumps of flesh and muscle.

              "They removed 90 percent of the infection on her backside," said Cathy Bagley. "He had to go in and scrape it out. I saw it for the first time, it's just awful" (Fox News, 2012) .

              Title: Brain-Eating Amoeba And Other Diseases That Could Spread With Climate Change
              Date: September 21, 2012
              Source: Care2

              Abstract: Global warming is the greatest threat facing our planet today.

              Scientists have been telling us this for a while: a warming planet alters weather patterns, water supplies, seasonal growth for plants and a sustainable way of life for us and the world’s wildlife.

              Experts note that climate change may also be impacting certain environmentally sensitive diseases, and not in a good way. Read on, if you dare!

              Changes in climate may enhance the spread of some diseases. Disease-causing agents, called pathogens, can be transmitted through food, water, and animals such as deer, birds, mice, and insects. Climate change could affect all of these transmitters.

              Translated, that means certain diseases will be able to proliferate due to rapid changes in water, heat and air quality. Here are just five examples. More can be found on the EPA site .

              1. Salmonella
              Let’s start with salmonella bacteria, the most frequently reported cause of food-borne illness. You may remember that two years ago, a salmonella outbreak caused by contaminated chicken eggs sickened more than 1,600 people across the United States, sending many victims to the hospital with severe infections.

              Salmonella is a rod-shaped bacilli that can cause diarrheal illness in humans by passing from the feces of people or animals to other people or other animals.

              What’s the global warming connection? Higher air temperatures can increase cases of salmonella and other bacteria-related food poisoning because bacteria grow more rapidly in warm environments. As if that were not bad enough, flooding and heavy rainfall can cause overflows from sewage treatment plants into fresh water sources. Overflows could also contaminate certain food crops, as was suspected with Taylor Farms lettuce last year .

              2. Giardia
              Giardiasis, caused by the parasite Giardia intestinalis, is an infection of the small intestine and is the most common cause of water-borne, parasitic illness in the U.S. Up to 2.5 million cases of this disease are reported each year in the U.S., and up to 20 percent of the world’s population is chronically infected.

              As a backpacker, I spend much of my summer exploring wilderness areas and I know I am at risk of contracting giardiasis if I drink from contaminated fresh water lakes, so I always treat my water. But giardiasis is also a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea in day-care centers because of the high probability of fecal-oral contamination from children.

              In general, giardiasis occurs where there is inadequate sanitation or treatment of drinking water. The most common manifestations of giardiasis are diarrhea and abdominal pain, particularly cramping the symptoms and signs of giardiasis do not begin for at least seven days following infection, but can occur as long as three or more weeks later. And as I know from several hiker friends, the recovery period can be really long.

              What’s the global warming connection? Heavy rainfall or flooding can increase water-borne parasites such as Giardia intestinalis that are sometimes found in drinking water, and it can cause stormwater runoff that may contaminate water bodies such as lakes and beaches, that are used for recreation.

              3. Lyme Disease
              Lyme disease is spread through the bite of a blacklegged tick that is infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Typical symptoms of Lyme disease include fever, headache, fatigue and a characteristic skin rash. Most people recover after taking antibiotics, while up to 20 percent of sufferers experience symptoms that can continue for years.

              However, if you want to find out how terrible and life-changing this disease can be, read about author Amy Tan’s experience : an outdoor bucolic wedding in upstate New York led to hallucinations, the inability to drive and a life of constant anxiety.

              The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that in 2010, the most recent data available, there were over 20,000 confirmed cases in North America. In the United States, most infections occur in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic, from northeastern Virginia to Maine in north central states, mostly in Wisconsin and Minnesota and on the west coast, particularly northern California.

              What’s the global warming connection? The geographic range of ticks that carry Lyme disease is expanding as air temperatures rise. Patrick Leighton is a researcher at the University of Montreal:

              “Currently, the areas where we are seeing a larger tick population is in the eastern part of the country along the U.S. border,” said Leighton, who observed that ranges for ticks are expanding by roughly 45 kilometers per year. He said the spread was linked to established Lyme disease hosts like white-tailed deer, suitable forest habitat and warmer temperatures.

              “If you look historically, increases in temperature have been important [for Lyme disease],” he said. “The main thing that our study showed was that under warmer climate conditions, ticks move faster.”

              4. West Nile Virus
              West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. West Nile virus was first discovered in the United States in the summer of 1999 in New York. Since then, the virus has spread throughout the United States. This is a type of virus known as a flavivirus. Researchers believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person.

              The milder version of the disease, generally called West Nile fever , may cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, muscle aches, nausea, rash or a sore throat. These symptoms usually last for 3 – 6 days, but there is a much more serious form of the disease that can be life-threatening.

              However, on the positive side, many people who are bitten by mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus do not notice any symptoms at all.

              What’s the global warming connection? In 2002, a new strain of West Nile virus , which can cause serious, life-altering disease, emerged in the United States. Higher temperatures are favorable to the survival of this new strain since 2012 is the hottest year on record in the United States according to the National Climatic Data Center , it’s probably not a coincidence that some of the states hit hardest by West Nile have also felt the brunt of the heat.

              5. Brain-Eating Amoeba
              This one may be the scariest of all.

              CDC researchers say that the two Louisiana individuals who died last year from a brain-eating primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) contracted the infection after using neti-pots with tap water harboring the bacteria, according to a study in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

              The victims’ deaths, the first recorded PAM cases in the U.S., were linked to the presence of Naegleria fowleri in the tap water they used to regularly clear their sinuses with neti pots, the study says. The municipal tap water tested negative for the bacteria, but one victim’s tankless water heater and the other’s sink and faucet tested positive for the bacteria.

              What are the symptoms of PAM? In the first case , a 28-year-old man developed a severe headache, neck stiffness, back pain, confusion, fever and vomiting and became extremely disoriented. The second victim was a 51-year-old woman who suffered from nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, fever and neck stiffness.

              What’s the global warming connection? The CDC believes that as temperatures increase, these bacteria can colonize in household plumbing and tap water. CDC researchers say there has been a shift north in the geographic pattern of where PAM cases are reported, perhaps due to a climate change or localized heat waves.

              As always with the possibility of disease, the best approach is not to stay home and avoid all contact with insects. Rather, be careful! Personally, I’m not so fond of white-tailed deer any more, and I always check for those ticks after a hike in the park. Stay safe! (Care2, 2012).

              Title: New York Firefighter Loses Leg To Flesh-Eating Bacteria
              Date: September 29, 2012
              Source: Fox News

              Abstract: A firefighter who traded his leg for his life has been released from a Long Island hospital following a battle with a flesh-eating bacteria.

              Ralph Lettieri, of East Patchogue, nearly died when a poison ivy rash was infected by a microbe that began killing off tissue in his left leg.

              Doctors say there was only one way to save him. They amputated the leg above the knee.

              Newsday reports that the 26-year-old will be getting a prosthetic leg.

              Lettieri says he was down at first, but now feels he has a new lease on life.

              He says he hopes to return to firefighting, and plans to work for his father's construction company (Fox News, 2012) .

              Vocab - 2300 to 2400

              An obelisk — a tall, narrow stone pillar that tapers to a point at the top and commemorates an important person or eventt*.
              Obelisks were all the rage in ancient Egypt and still in vogue in Rome's heyday.

              The Egyptians associated the skinny four-sided monoliths with the sun god Ra and thought they looked like the sun's rays shining down.

              Pugilism is the skill, practice, and sport of fighting with the fists. It is another name for the sport of boxing

              An example of a potentate is a king.
              Potentate normallyrefers to a king or dictator, but you can call anyone with virtually unlimited power a potentate.
              Theking of a country, the conductor of an orchestra, the commander of a battleship—all of these are examples of a potentatee*.
              Take a look at potentate, and you'll see the word potent, which means "powerful," as in "that's one potent cup o' joe!"

              It's easy to see, then, how potent becomes potentate just by adding a few letters. A potentate is a powerful person. Potent enough to pass the rules - a monarch*.

              The definition of putative refers to something commonly accepted as true or thought by most to be true.
              When everyone thinks a certain author wrote an anonymous book, this is an example of a situation where the certain author is considered the putative author.

              Ascribe's Latin root is ascribere, meaning basically "to write in.'' Makes sense, because ascribe is often used to link writers to their words.

              >insensible. insensible people infuriate (incense) me./ सुगन्ध* धूप
              Incense means both "to make angry" and a stick that burns slowly and emits a strong smell.
              If your new college roommate burns incense in your tiny dorm room, you might get incensed and storm out.

              Definition of humdrum is something dull, monotonous and boring.
              A day which filled with boring, routine activities is an example of a day that would be described as humdrum.

              Anything that you can call humdrum is so severely lacking in variety and excitement that it's sure to make you hum and drum your fingers out of boredom.

              Humdrum is an adjective to describe the unglamorous monotony of everyday routines. It's the same old thing, again and again, over and over.

              The definition of ascension means the act of going up.
              New Testament :the rising of the body of Jesus into heaven on the 40th day after his Resurrection

              Ascension Parish and St Bernard Parish have each discovered Naegleria fowleri amoeba, a bacteria that enters through the nose and attacks the brain

              The adjective indisposed is a slightly formal way to describe someone who's feeling sick. You might call your boss to tell her that you can't make it to work because you're indisposed.

              When you're a bit under the weather, you're indisposed, particularly if you're ill enough to stay in bed and miss work or school.

              Another meaning of indisposed is unwilling — you're able to do something but refuse to do itt*.
              You might say, "I'm indisposed to visit my cousin because she's always so mean to me."

              Around 1400, it meant "not prepared," and by the mid-fifteenth century, "deceased" or "dead."

              The definition of hubbub is loud noise or many voices talking at once.

              An example of hubbub is the noise made by students in a high school auditorium after hearing an important announcement.

              Hubbub is a fun, rhyming word for an uproar, a brouhaha, or another crazy situation that has gone completely higgledy-piggledy.

              A hubbub is chaotic, disorganized, loud, and distracting sound.

              Reconnoiter is to conduct a military mission to observe something or someone or to find something out.
              When a top-secret military team goes into an enemy country to check out their army, this is an example of reconnoiter

              When you reconnoiter something, you typically explore it with a particular goal in mind.

              If you're part of a military group, you might reconnoiter the coast to see where the navy might land. It's a way to make a preliminary inspection so you can figure out what to do next.

              Abreaction (German: Abreagieren) is a psychoanalytical term for reliving an experience in order to purge it of its emotional excesses ,a type of catharsis. Sometimes it is a method of becoming conscious of repressed traumatic events.

              Maunder is to wander aimlessly: move or act in a dreamy, vague, aimless way or without any destination, often in search of food or employment
              "The gypsies roamed the woods" "roving vagabonds" "the wandering Jew" "The cattle roam across the prairie"

              Maunder - talk indistinctly. to talk usually in a low voice
              "She talks a lot of nonsense" "This depressed patient does not verbalize"
              maunder - speak (about unimportant matters) rapidly and incessantly
              to talk foolishly "The two women babbled and crooned at the baby"

              Palaver is defined as charming talk, or chatter.
              An example of palaver is a flirtatious conversation.

              personal confidence or courage that allows someone to do or say things that may seem shocking to others Chutzpah means fearlessness.

              The definition of a torrent is a stream or rush of something like water, rain or mail.
              An example of torrent is rain coming down at a rapid pace.

              Because the noun torrent literally means "rushing stream," it is often describes fast-flowing water, like a rainstorm or creeks and rivers that overflow their banks.

              The word torrent can also describe any sudden inundation, like a deluge of words or thoughts, like when, in anger, you unleash a torrent of emotional words on your friend.

              An example of foil is aluminum foil, a thin metal sheet used to cover food before you put it in the freezer.
              An example of foil is a long, thin sword used in sword fighting.

              A pacifist is a peacemaker — even its Latin origins of pax, or "peace" and facere, "to make" show itt*.
              If you are a pacifist, you avoid physical confrontations.

              The definition of cozen is to cheat, or make someone believe something that isn't true.
              An example of cozen is cheating while playing poker.

              Premonitory is something to Serving as a warning.
              If you experience premonitory pains, please consult a physician immediately.

              The adjective premonitory is related to the Latin word praemonere, from prae, meaning "before," and monere, meaning "warn."

              Sleuth is a fun, sometimes playful, word for "detective."
              As a verb, it's also what a detective does.
              When you seek clues, you sleuth. You, sleuth, you!

              A panderer is someone who tries to please others, not to help them but for an ulterior motive.
              A panderer is sometimes vulgar.

              As noun and verb, splice refers to the overlapping or interweaving of two ends of something to create the strongest possible attachment.

              To splatter is to splash liquid.
              A splatter is also the spot the liquid makes.In horror movies, you'll see a lot of blood splattering on walls.

              exit + emergency you remember the emergency exit, only when at the time of an urgent situation /अत्यावश्यकता* संकटकाल, आपदा

              Exigency is defined as a condition of urgency .
              An example of exigency is the need to deliver a package quickly.
              Exigency is a mix of excitement and emergency, a sudden, urgent crisis.
              The meaning of exigency is obvious from its source, the Latin noun exigentia, which means "urgency " and comes from the verb exigere, meaning "to demand or require.

              To conjure is defined as to call a spirit or to practice magic.
              An example of to conjure is a group around a table trying to call a spirit from another world.

              If your mom can magically conjure up the most delicious meals from the most random ingredients in the kitchen, she might just be the best cook in the neighborhood.

              Sometimes the mere sight or smell of something can conjure or stir up long lost memories, magically transporting you back to another place and time.

              The definition of somnolent is to be sleepy or drowsy, or something that causes sleepiness or drowsiness.

              A cold medicine that causes you to feel really groggy and tired is an example of something that could be described as somnolent
              If you're somnolent, you're feeling sleepy or drowsy.

              The definition of demented is an insane person or someone with a loss of mental function.

              Demented is an adjective describing behavior that is crazy, unhinged, or insane.
              Someone is demented when they have gone off the deep end.

              Someone who's reproachful is deeply disapproving .
              A reproachful look on your mom's face is a sign that you've disappointed her and might be in trouble .

              Primp is a word that is * Primp best illustrated by girls getting ready for a ball.
              Primp--it means to groom yourself elaborately.

              Masti + C + ATE MASTI when I ATE, i.e. keep chewing and swallow. /चबाना* सानना
              Grind and knead
              To masticate is to chew your food or to bite and grind stuff with your teeth .

              A cassock is a long, single-colored robe that's usually black. It's worn by priests and other clergymen

              You've probably listened to speakers who stood behind a raised platform. They set their notes on top and sometimes possibly gripped the edges for support.
              That platform is called a rostrum, also known as a podium or lectern.

              The adjective delinquent describes something that is past due or people who are negligent in doing their duty.
              If you are delinquent in paying your delinquent library fines, you won't be able to check out any more books.

              Unfaltering is marked by firm determination or resolution not shakable "firm convictions" "a firm mouth" "steadfast resolve" "a man of unbendable perseverance*" "unwavering loyalty"

              Someone who robs at sea or plunders the land from the sea without having a commission from any sovereign nation.

              When you're sailing the open sea, you might worry about a buccaneer who wants to rob your ship and possibly enslave your crew.

              The definition of a consort is the wife or husband of a reigning king or queen.

              To consort is to hang out with or associate with others regularly.
              When you spend a lot of time with someone, that person is an example of someone you consort with regularly.

              When you break apart the word laudable, you can see the verb laud, meaning praise or acclaim, followed by the suffix -able, which is a tip-off that this word is an adjective.

              So laudable describes things that are worthy of praise, such as a laudable effort to end poverty, and it can also describe admirable ideas or beliefs, such as a laudable compassion for others.
              laudable/ laudatory
              Use the word Use the word laudable to describe something that deserves praise

              To resurge is to come back or rise again.
              If you have lost your mojo or motivation, be patient. Hopefully, it will resurge. Call it a comeback!

              When you watch scary movies,you ever feel your heart palpitate. This means it beats quickly.

              To correctly pronounce palpitate, say: "PAL-pih-tate." Hearts aren't the only thing that can palpitate
              your whole body might palpitate, or shiver.

              The definition of a caliphate is the rule of, or land ruled by, an Islamic political leader.

              To pounce is to attack suddenly by leaping onto your prey .
              A tiger will slowly sneak up on its prey and then suddenly pounce, using speed as much as strength to make the kill.

              To encourage or assist (someone) to do something wrong, in particular, to commit a crime or other offense.
              "He was not guilty of murder but was guilty of aiding and abetting others"

              To ameliorate is to step in and make a bad situation better.
              You could try introducing a second lollipop to ameliorate a battle between two toddlers over a single lollipop.

              The essential point or problem is the crux.
              People are always trying to get to the crux of a matter or the crux of a problem*, while others try to distract them.

              The noun crux is often followed by the phrases "of the matter" or "of the problem."

              A bad-tempered or gloomy person is sullen. Sullen people are down in the dumps.

              Eexcessive talkativeness, esp. when incoherent and uncontrollable.
              logorrhea,is a pathological inability to stop talking. Sounds better than "loudmouth."

              As its sound suggests, logorrhea is related to diarrhea — an inability to stop something far more unpleasant from flowing.

              In the case of logorrhea, the log prefix is from the Greek word for "words," meaning literally "words flowing through."

              synonyms: in league, colluding, in collusion, conspiring, collaborating, hand in glove, in bed

              Mephistopheles (noun) is a devil in medieval legend and later literary and operatic works, to whom Faust, or Faustus, sells his soul for knowledge and power

              The definition of cursory is something done quickly with only a small attention to detail.
              An example of cursory is when you only look over your notes for two minutes before a test instead of studying.

              Adj: powerful,having great power or force or potency or effect .

              Because the dictator was puissant, he could do anything he wanted without seeking permission .
              The movie star believed a puissant person like herself should never have to wait in line .
              As a mediator, the puissant prime minister was able to get both of the leaders to agree to a peace accord .

              adverb:in a feverish manner

              Feverishly is defined as something done in a rapid manner.
              When you work through the night, moving quickly to try to get a job done, this is an example of working feverishly.

              The Song of Departure is written feverishly in the present tense and a flurry of cliches.

              The clarinet and the bouzouki would play feverishly, the men and women were locking hands in a circular, whirling dance.

              Adj:placed side by side to emphasize their contrast. often for comparison

              An art exhibit might have the paintings of one period juxtaposed with those from another to emphasize how different the two periods were.

              The reality show clearly shows a cultural juxtaposition between rich people and poor people.
              What impressed me most about the song was its juxtaposition of country and classic soul.

              Adverb:in a patent manner clearly obviously openly unmistakably (`plain' is often used informally for `plainly')

              you might say "It's patently clear that you hate spinach."

              This decision is so patently unjust that it has been very widely ascribed to a deliberate design to keep the two countries apart.

              (of an attack, assault, strategy, etc) taking place at several points simultaneously ⇒
              "a multi pronged assault caught the Marines by surprise as they were patrolling on foot"

              Coalition forces pressed a two- pronged offensive against stiff resistance from Shi'ite and Sunni insurgents across Iraq.
              1400-50 late Middle English pronge, prange pain, affliction, pointed instrument akin to Old Swedish prang gorge, narrow street, Middle Low German prange stake, prangen to press, Gothic anaprangan to oppress

              The definition of protean is a person or thing that is complex, varied or changes easily .

              An example of protean is a chameleon changing its skin color to be camouflaged .

              Being an expert in technology is difficult, due to the protean nature of the subject .

              And high school romances are protean and frequently short-lived .

              At this stage, just a month and a half before the presidential election , the US political field is protean , and public sentiment can change drastically from day to day.

              To promulgate is to officially put a law into effect
              State may announce a plan to promulgate a new traffic law on January 1st .

              One of the functions of the news media is to promulgate the winners of the Academy Awards.

              adj:of or relating to prediction having value for making predictions an event that is experienced as indicating important things to come

              noun: a sign or indication of things to come
              prediction foretelling events as if by supernatural intervention

              The doctor gave the cancer patient a positive prognosis

              According to his symptoms, the prognosis for his recovery is questionable.

              Prognosis is a prediction or probable outcome of a patient's progress during or following a disease.

              He hoped it was an augury
              "It was a sign from God", the Father conveyed to him,

              noun:a negative motivational influence

              The definition of a deterrence is the act of stopping something from happening.
              An example of a deterrence is having a fire extinguisher available to put out a fire.

              n : a stipulated condition

              The definition of a proviso is a clause in a document imposing a qualification, condition, or restriction.

              An example of a proviso is if you will sign on a contract to sell your company only on the condition that you get to be on the board.

              The definition of simpatico may refer to someone like minded or with similar temperament , compatible having attractive qualities and pleasing personality .

              The definition of simpatico is someone who gets along well with others.

              An example of* simpatico is a boss you feel comfortable approaching.

              Voracity(n): extreme gluttony, overeating.
              Use voracity when you're describing someone's enormous, gluttonous appetite.

              Someone consuming or eager to consume great amounts of food

              At the root of voracity is the Latin word vorare, which means "to devour."

              veracious: Someone who is veracious, speaks the truth — like your brutally honest friend who always lets you know what she thinks about your personality.

              voracious (adj):described as wolf like appetite and unflattering greediness not only craving for food but also for power .

              veracity: it means truthfulness. If you question the veracity of a statement or story, you wonder whether it is truthful or accurate.

              Watch the video: Naegleria fowleri: What You Need to Know (May 2022).