Remixer - Biology

Remixer - Biology

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The OER Remixer tool allows the rapidly assemble of customized Remixes from existing sources on our comprehensive and ever-growing libraries. See the Remixer Tutorial in Chapter 7 of the Construction Guide for more details for an explanation of the Remixer's interface and videos to a walkthrough videos of how to do basic tasks with the OER Remixer. Your Remixing Map is stored automatically on your computer as you build, so you do not have to complete your Remix in one setting. If you switch to a different computer, you will want to save the Map.

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Background and composition [ edit | edit source ]

"Biology" is composed of a number of distinctly different sections. The song begins with Nadine Coyle singing over a bluesy piano riff, based on the main riff from The Animals' "Club A-Gogo". The first verse occurs, followed by two noticeably individual transitional bridges. Around two minutes into the song, the song reaches its climactic chorus before returning to the stanza heard in the introduction. The song repeats the chorus and the introduction is also used as an outro. The song avoids the typical AABA form and verse-chorus form present in most contemporary pop music.

Brian Higgins and Xenomania created "Biology" in reaction to Girls Aloud's previous single "Long Hot Summer", which Higgins called "a disaster record. Higgins continued, "I think that [Biology] is a wonderful record - so uplifting. It meant so much to us and it really set Chemistry up well." The lyric referring to "wicked games", which is mentioned in the Animals-inspired riff, was inspired by Girls Aloud almost releasing a cover of Chris Isaak's "Wicked Game" as a single.

The song's title inspired the album's title, Chemistry. Both the single and album title refer to the scientific fields of biology and chemistry.

Remix Therapeutics

Remix Therapeutics is a company focused on discovering modulators of RNA processing for undruggable disease drivers with the promise to bring new medicines to patients. We are developing a suite of proprietary platform technologies that transform our ability to design and develop therapeutics that can selectively modulate various steps of RNA processing biology. The company is financed by Atlas Venture, The Column Group, Foresight Capital, Arch Venture Partners, and Alexandria Venture Investments.

We seek a highly motivated, M.S. or Ph.D.-level cell biologist to join our team located in Cambridge, MA. As a team member of the Biomolecular Sciences and Lead Discovery group, this individual will be responsible for the design, development, execution, and analysis of various multiplex assays monitoring gene regulation to enable new programs at Remix. The ideal candidate will have strong experimental skills and publication record focused on molecular mechanisms of RNA processing and will report to an Associate Director. We are seeking an enthusiastic scientist who can work independently, and as part of a team, in a dynamic innovative startup environment. The individual will be expected to contribute to data generation, analysis, interpretation, visualization as well as communicating with a cross-functional team of scientists.

Principal Duties and Responsibilities

  • Design and conduct cell-based experiments for an RNA biology-based platform to monitor RNA processing events
  • Develop and validate in vitro assays for small molecule hit discovery, as well as elucidating MOA for hits (emphasis on Nanostring platform however qPCR, luminescence, high-throughput genomic technologies will be implemented)
  • Collaborate with bioinformatics group in design and interpretation of studies
  • Demonstrate innovation in research/planning and experimental design
  • Participate in project team meetings and platform development
  • Maintain detailed records of experimental protocols and data in electronic laboratory notebooks
  • Prioritize activities, manage internal resources while balancing multiple priorities under time and resource constraints
  • Contribute to building the BSLD infrastructure and developing our innovative drug discovery platform
  • Build and maintain productive relationships with colleagues in biomolecular sciences, biology and chemistry
  • PhD or equivalent in molecular and cell biology, or a related discipline with a demonstrated track record of scientific publications related to RNA processing
  • 1-3 years of postdoctoral or small molecule drug discovery experience
  • For M.S.-level applicants, 3-5+ years of industry experience working in a small molecule-related drug discovery capacity.
  • In-depth knowledge of RNA biology related mechanisms (e.g., splicing, stability, turnover) and hands-on experience in designing, developing, performing and analyzing in vitro and cell-based assays
  • Experience with high-content multiplex assays, Nanostring, 384-well qPCR, NGS workflows, luciferase/GFP reporter systems is highly desirable
  • Experience in cell culture and genetic perturbations (transient/stable expression, shRNA, siRNA, CRISPR) and drug-like compound treatments
  • Experience with data generation and mining via genome/transcriptome-wide profiling (e.g., whole genome, RNAseq, CLIPseq and ChIPseq) is preferred
  • Ability to manage timelines and resources to drive lead discovery campaigns and projects toward key decision criteria
  • Excellent organizational and communication skills with ability to work independently in a multidisciplinary team
  • Ability to guide and mentor junior research associates
  • Critical thinking, attention to detail, and careful record-keeping

Remix values diversity and is committed to equal employment opportunity and non-discrimination for all employees and qualified applicants without regard to a person’s race, color, gender, age, religion, national origin, ancestry, disability, marital or veteran status, genetic information, sexual orientation or any other legally protected status. Remix will make reasonable accommodations for qualified individuals with known disabilities, in accordance with applicable law.

Note to Third Party Staffing Agencies : Please do not forward any agency resumes. Remix Therapeutics is not responsible for any fees related to resumes that are unsolicited.

News & Media

Cambridge, Massachusetts. (December 8, 2020) – Remix Therapeutics, a biotechnology company developing small molecule therapies designed to reprogram RNA processing to address the underlying drivers of disease, launched today with $81 million in financing. The funds will support development of the company’s REMaster technology platform and advancement of a pipeline of RNA processing targeted therapeutics. The Series A round was led by Foresite Capital with participation from seed investors Atlas Venture and The Column Group. Additional investors joining the financing included Arch Venture and Alexandria Venture Investments.

“As we reach the limits of what is easily druggable with protein targeting therapies, reprogramming RNA processing represents an exciting new therapeutic opportunity. We believe we can precisely target the cellular complexes that process RNA to address the underlying drivers of disease, working upstream of protein expression,” said Pete Smith, PhD, Co-Founder, President and CSO of Remix Therapeutics and Atlas Venture Entrepreneur in Residence. “Backed by world-class investors, a distinguished board of directors and experts in the field, the Remix team is united in its singular focus to deliver new and better ways to treat disease, especially those with limited treatment options.”

While protein dysfunction is often the direct cause of disease, the root of that dysfunction often begins in a person’s genetic code with changes in DNA and subsequent RNA expression. Remix is designing medicines that target RNA processing to fine-tune how new RNA sequences are produced. These are small molecule therapies designed to be taken orally, allowing for therapeutic modulation throughout the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). Targeting RNA processing has the potential to address a broad range of diseases, including cancers, CNS diseases, rare diseases, and more.

“Remix is harnessing advances in data science, structural biology and chemistry to tackle disease in new and exciting ways,” said Michael Rome, PhD, Managing Director of Foresite Capital. “We believe the company is well-positioned to realize the potential of targeting RNA processing to deliver real therapeutic solutions for patients.”

Fueled by its proprietary REMaster technology platform, Remix is leveraging the power of data analytics, bespoke high-throughput screening technologies, and next generation chemistry to advance a pipeline of breakthrough therapies. The company’s innovative approach has the unique ability to precisely identify and target RNA processing steps to enhance or eliminate protein function, or to correct dysregulation in disease.

“RNA has long been considered a prime therapeutic target, but its innate complexities have made it notoriously difficult to drug. By focusing on RNA processing, the Remix team has identified a compelling way to pursue previously undruggable disease targets,” said Kevin Bitterman, PhD, Chairman of the Board of Remix Therapeutics and Partner at Atlas Venture.

Remix’s Board of Directors include:

· Kevin Bitterman, PhD, Chair of Remix Therapeutics, and Partner at Atlas Venture

· Michael Rome, PhD, Managing Director of Foresite Capital

· Leon Chen, PhD, Partner at The Column Group

· Scott Biller, PhD, Independent Board Member

· Peter Smith, PhD, President and CSO, Remix Therapeutics

· Kristina Burrow, Managing Director, Arch Venture, Board Observer

About Remix Therapeutics

Remix Therapeutics is a biotechnology company developing novel small molecule therapies designed to reprogram RNA processing and treat disease in entirely new ways. Our REMaster technology platform allows us to identify patterns in RNA processing and exploit them to modulate gene expression. Our innovative therapeutic approach has the ability to alter the way genes are read from the genome, to correct, enhance, or eliminate the gene message, thereby addressing disease drivers at their origin. For more information visit,

About Foresite Capital

Foresite Capital funds visionary healthcare entrepreneurs. With approximately $3 billion in assets under management, Foresite Capital has a team of clinical scientists, engineers, analysts and partners who support and guide companies at all stages of their life cycles. The firm is headquartered in San Francisco with an office in New York. For more information visit

About Atlas Venture

Atlas Venture is a leading biotech venture capital firm. With the goal of doing well by doing good, Atlas have been building breakthrough biotech startups for over 25 years, working side by side with exceptional scientists and entrepreneurs to translate high impact science into medicines for patients. Their seed-led venture creation strategy rigorously selects and focuses investment on the most compelling opportunities to build scalable businesses and realize value. For more information, please visit

About The Column Group

The Column Group is a leading venture capital firm based in San Francisco that seeks to partner with exceptional scientific founders, entrepreneurs, executives, and investment organizations with a shared vision for building the next generation of drug discovery and development companies. TCG invests in disease-focused drug discovery companies with the potential to become leaders in their respective fields. These companies are strongly supported by the unique and complementary skill sets of TCG’s team, which includes prominent authorities in the scientific, operational, and financial arenas.

This is one of over 2,400 courses on OCW. Explore materials for this course in the pages linked along the left.

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Made for sharing. Download files for later. Send to friends and colleagues. Modify, remix, and reuse (just remember to cite OCW as the source.)

Introduction to Biology and the Characteristics of Life Socrative Discussion (Remix)

I like to start my class year off with a good introduction to the subject as well as a fun hook. When students walk into my classroom on Day 1, there is a large box sitting on a lab table labeled "DO NOT OPEN WITHOUT TEACHER PERMISSION!" It immediately catches students' eyes and communicates that this class will not be an ordinary class. I don't reference the box at all as I am greeting them, and if any student asks about the box then I solemnly dismiss or defer their question. I like to build the aura of mystery as much as I can. After we make introductions and review the highlights of the syllabus, it is finally time to reveal the mystery box. Inside the box are seven items representing the characteristics of life. Feel free to use mine or to make up your own!

  • A lighter or a food item to represent that living things use/possess energy
  • A microscope or a slide to represent that living things have cells
  • A binder or folder to represent the organization of living things
  • A cell phone with a voice assistant to represent the responsiveness of living things to the environment
  • A diaper or baby bottle to represent the reproduction of living things
  • A balloon that (when inflated) represents the growth of living things
  • Something adjustable (like a clamp) to represent adaptation. You could even use a lock/key and talk about organisms "fit" their environment using specific adaptations

At this point I either have students come up with the characteristics on their own using the items as clues, or I give them a list of the characteristics and have them identify which of the mystery items represents what to encourage review and discussion. After the students are comfortable with the characteristics, briefly introduce viruses and then use the original resource to discuss why viruses should or should not be considered living. If you don't have time to introduce viruses, a discussion about which characteristics of life cars possess or whether or not living things in suspended animation (like the Tardigrade) should be considered alive would also make great socrative discussions.

Morehouse College Student Flips Lil Uzi Vert’s “XO Tour Llif3” Into Biology-Inspired Track “XY Cell Llif3”

A Morehouse student has remixed Lil Uzi Vert&aposs "XO Tour Llif3" into an educational track about biology.

Julien Turner recently uploaded a video to his YouTube page titled "XY Cell Llif3." The video uses the track from Uzi&aposs hit song, but with a twist. The regular chorus goes, "I don&apost really care if you cry/On the real, you shoulda never lied/Shoulda saw the way she looked me in my eyes/She said: &aposBaby, I am not afraid to die&apos/Push me to the edge/All my friends are dead/Push me to the edge/All my friends are dead."

But Turner slid some game on how cells work in his version. "The DNA starts to unwind/The RNA reads the other side/Meiosis is the key to making life/Mitosis copies cells about to die/If my genes go left unread/All my cells are dead/If my genes go left unread/All my cells are dead," he raps on his interpretation.

He continues to break the science down even further in the verses. According to the video&aposs description, this was an "Extra credit assignment done for non-major biology class."

Julien and hs 15-year-old brother, Justen, both co-own Dreadhead Films, LLC., "a film production company with a mission to create stories that entertain, inspire, and uplift."

Uzi, who recently appeared in XXL&aposs 20th anniversary cover, just released his "The Way Life Goes" remix with Nicki Minaj.

Check out the biology-inspired remix of Lil Uzi Vert&aposs "XO Tour Llif3" below.

See Behind-the-Scenes Photos of Lil Uzi Vert at the 2016 XXL Freshman Shoot


Prof. Hazel Sive, Professor of Biology, MIT
Until June 2020, Hazel Sive was a Professor of Biology at MIT where she taught introductory biology to first year students and developmental biology to graduate students. In June 2020, Professor Sive moved to become Dean of Science and Professor of Biology at Northeastern University.

Dr. Diviya Ray, Technical Instructor, Department of Biology, MIT
Dr. Diviya Ray built this course with Professor Sive. She is a Technical Instructor who works with department faculty to teach and provide instructional support for undergraduate lecture and lab courses in Biology. In Fall 2020, Dr. Ray will start as an Assistant Teaching Professor in The Department of Biology at Northeastern University.

Related Content

Once you have completed this online course, you will be ready to explore MIT's introductory biology courses on the MIT OpenCourseWare site.

The MIT Biology Department Introductory Biology courses (7.012, 7.013, 7.014, 7.015, and 7.016) all cover the same core material, which includes the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material.

This 'Despacito' Remix Is Going Viral For a Wonderful Reason

R emember “Despacito,” the song of the summer for 2017? Surely you haven’t forgotten Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee‘s verified banger so soon. But if you’re in the mood to revisit its Latin charms, consider this update. Posted on the Facebook page “A Cappella Science,” the evolutionary-development-biology-themed version is sung a cappella to the catchy tune of the now-classic “Despacito.” After being re-posted on Halloween, it’s now racked up more than 5 million views (and nearly half a million on YouTube). That’s because it’s a work of pure art and science, combined.

With lyrics that name-check famous biologists and reference terms like phenotype and genotype &mdash all while laying out a visual representation of the subject &mdash it also might become a biology teacher’s favorite classroom tool.

“We are built of molecules combined in a planned-out way,” creator Tim Blais sings in the chorus. “Each piece must be told where to go. Now there’s a science helping us to understand how our cells encode this architectural plan, signaling each other with genetic tools, oh… It’s evo-devo.” Blais, who is in charge of the Facebook page and associated YouTube channel, calls his work an “online video project” and describes himself as a physics master’s student and “lifelong harmony addict” who draws inspiration from acts like Weird Al and Bill Nye. The videos are done as layers of Blais himself singing and beat-boxing he’s a one-man show.


Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand. To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.

Welcome to Biology 2e (2nd edition), an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.

About OpenStax

OpenStax is a nonprofit based at Rice University, and it’s our mission to improve student access to education. Our first openly licensed college textbook was published in 2012, and our library has since scaled to over 25 books for college and AP ® courses used by hundreds of thousands of students. OpenStax Tutor, our low-cost personalized learning tool, is being used in college courses throughout the country. Through our partnerships with philanthropic foundations and our alliance with other educational resource organizations, OpenStax is breaking down the most common barriers to learning and empowering students and instructors to succeed.

About OpenStax resources


Biology 2e is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content contributors.

Because our books are openly licensed, you are free to use the entire book or pick and choose the sections that are most relevant to the needs of your course. Feel free to remix the content by assigning your students certain chapters and sections in your syllabus, in the order that you prefer. You can even provide a direct link in your syllabus to the sections in the web view of your book.

Instructors also have the option of creating a customized version of their OpenStax book. The custom version can be made available to students in low-cost print or digital form through their campus bookstore. Visit the Instructor Resources section of your book page on for more information.


All OpenStax textbooks undergo a rigorous review process. However, like any professional-grade textbook, errors sometimes occur. Since our books are web based, we can make updates periodically when deemed pedagogically necessary. If you have a correction to suggest, submit it through the link on your book page on Subject matter experts review all errata suggestions. OpenStax is committed to remaining transparent about all updates, so you will also find a list of past errata changes on your book page on


You can access this textbook for free in web view or PDF through, and for a low cost in print.

About Biology 2e

Biology 2e (2nd edition) is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand — and apply — key concepts.

The 2 nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.

Coverage and scope

Biology was one of the first textbooks published by OpenStax and has been used by hundreds of faculty and thousands of students since 2012. We mined our adopters’ extensive and helpful feedback to identify the most significant revision needs while maintaining the organization that many instructors had incorporated into their courses. Specific surveys, focus groups, and pre-revision reviews, as well as data from our OpenStax Tutor users, all aided in planning the revision.

The result is a book that thoroughly treats biology’s foundational concepts while adding current and meaningful coverage in specific areas. Biology 2e retains its manageable scope and contains ample features to draw learners into the discipline.

Structurally, the textbook remains similar to the first edition, with no chapter reorganization and very targeted changes at the section level (mostly in biodiversity).

  • Unit 1: The Chemistry of Life. Our opening unit introduces students to the sciences, including the scientific method and the fundamental concepts of chemistry and physics that provide a framework within which learners comprehend biological processes.
  • Unit 2: The Cell. Students will gain solid understanding of the structures, functions, and processes of the most basic unit of life: the cell.
  • Unit 3: Genetics. Our comprehensive genetics unit takes learners from the earliest experiments that revealed the basis of genetics through the intricacies of DNA to current applications in the emerging studies of biotechnology and genomics.
  • Unit 4: Evolutionary Processes. The core concepts of evolution are discussed in this unit with examples illustrating evolutionary processes. Additionally, the evolutionary basis of biology reappears throughout the textbook in general discussion and is reinforced through special call-out features highlighting specific evolution-based topics.
  • Unit 5: Biological Diversity. The diversity of life is explored with detailed study of various organisms and discussion of emerging phylogenetic relationships. This unit moves from viruses to living organisms like bacteria, discusses the organisms formerly grouped as protists, and devotes multiple chapters to plant and animal life.
  • Unit 6: Plant Structure and Function. Our plant unit thoroughly covers the fundamental knowledge of plant life essential to an introductory biology course.
  • Unit 7: Animal Structure and Function. An introduction to the form and function of the animal body is followed by chapters on specific body systems and processes. This unit touches on the biology of all organisms while maintaining an engaging focus on human anatomy and physiology that helps students connect to the topics.
  • Unit 8: Ecology. Ecological concepts are broadly covered in this unit, with features highlighting localized, real-world issues of conservation and biodiversity.

Changes to the Second Edition

OpenStax only undertakes second editions when significant modifications to the text are necessary. In the case of Biology 2e, user feedback indicated that we needed to focus on a few key areas, which we have done in the following ways:

  • Content revisions for clarity, accuracy, and currency. The revision plan varied by chapter based on need. About twenty chapters were wholly revised with significant updates to conceptual coverage, research-informed data, and clearer language. In about fifteen other chapters, the revisions focused mostly on readability and clearer language with fewer conceptual and factual changes.
  • Additional end-of-chapter questions. The authors added new assessments to nearly every chapter, including both review and critical thinking questions. The additions total over 350 new items.
  • Art and illustrations. Under the guidance of the authors and expert scientific illustrators, especially those well versed in creating accessible art, the OpenStax team made changes to most of the art in Biology. You will find examples in the section below. The revisions fall into the following categories:
    • Revisions for accuracy
    • Redesigns for greater understanding and impact
    • Recoloring art for overall consistency
    • To accommodate users of specific assistive technologies, all alternative text was reviewed and revised for comprehensiveness and clarity.
    • Many illustrations were revised to improve the color contrast, which is important for some visually impaired students.
    • Overall, the OpenStax platform has been continually upgraded to improve accessibility.

    A transition guide will be available on to highlight the specific chapter-level changes to the second edition.

    Pedagogical foundation

    The pedagogical choices, chapter arrangements, and learning objective fulfillment were developed and vetted with the feedback of another one hundred reviewers, who thoroughly read the material and offered detailed critical commentary.

    • Evolution Connection features uphold the importance of evolution to all biological study through discussions like “The Evolution of Metabolic Pathways” and “Algae and Evolutionary Paths to Photosynthesis.”
    • Scientific Method Connection call-outs walk students through actual or thought experiments that elucidate the steps of the scientific process as applied to the topic. Features include “Determining the Time Spent in Cell Cycle Stages” and “Testing the Hypothesis of Independent Assortment.”
    • Career Connection features present information on a variety of careers in the biological sciences, introducing students to the educational requirements and day-to-day work life of a variety of professions, such as microbiologist, ecologist, neurologist, and forensic scientist.
    • Everyday Connection features tie biological concepts to emerging issues and discuss science in terms of everyday life. Topics include “Chesapeake Bay” and “Can Snail Venom Be Used as a Pharmacological Pain Killer?”

    Art and animations that engage

    Our art program takes a straightforward approach designed to help students learn the concepts of biology through simple, effective illustrations, photos, and micrographs. Biology 2e also incorporates links to relevant animations and interactive exercises that help bring biology to life for students.

    • Visual Connection features call out core figures in each chapter for student study. Questions about key figures, including clicker questions that can be used in the classroom, engage students’ critical thinking and analytical abilities to ensure their genuine understanding.
    • Link to Learning features direct students to online interactive exercises and animations to add a fuller context and examples to core content.

    Below are a few examples of the revised art for Biology 2e:

    Additional resources

    Student and instructor resources

    We’ve compiled additional resources for both students and instructors, including Getting Started Guides, an instructor solution guide, and PowerPoint lecture slides. Instructor resources require a verified instructor account, which you can apply for when you log in or create your account on Take advantage of these resources to supplement your OpenStax book.

    Community Hubs

    OpenStax partners with the Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education (ISKME) to offer Community Hubs on OER Commons – a platform for instructors to share community-created resources that support OpenStax books, free of charge. Through our Community Hubs, instructors can upload their own materials or download resources to use in their own courses, including additional ancillaries, teaching material, multimedia, and relevant course content. We encourage instructors to join the hubs for the subjects most relevant to your teaching and research as an opportunity both to enrich your courses and to engage with other faculty.

    To reach the Community Hubs, visit

    Technology partners

    As allies in making high-quality learning materials accessible, our technology partners offer optional low-cost tools that are integrated with OpenStax books. To access the technology options for your text, visit your book page on

    About the authors

    Second edition authors and reviewers

    Senior Contributing Authors

    Mary Ann Clark, Texas Wesleyan University

    Jung Choi, Georgia Institute of Technology

    Matthew Douglas, Grand Rapids Community College

    Kathleen Berlyn, Baltimore City Community College

    Bridgett Brinton, Armstrong State University

    Jennifer Chase, Northwest Nazarene University

    Amy Hoffman, Grayson County College

    Olga Kopp, Utah Valley University

    Jennifer Larson, Capital University

    Jason Locklin, Austin Community College

    Hongmei Ma, American University

    Melissa Masse, Tulsa Community College

    Shannon McDermott, Central Virginia Community College

    Bryan Monesson-Olson, University of Massachusetts Amherst

    Amber Reece, California State University Fresno

    Monique Reed, Texas A&M University

    Jeffrey Roberts, American River College

    Matthew Smith, North Dakota State University

    Dawn Wankowski, Cardinal Stritch University

    First edition authors and reviewers

    Senior Contributing Authors

    Yael Avissar (Cell Biology), Rhode Island College

    Jung Choi (Genetics), Georgia Institute of Technology

    Jean DeSaix (Evolution), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Vladimir Jurukovski (Animal Physiology), Suffolk County Community College

    Robert Wise (Plant Biology), University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh

    Connie Rye (General Content Lead), East Mississippi Community College

    Contributing Authors and Reviewers

    Julie Adams, Aurora University

    Summer Allen, Brown University

    James Bader, Case Western Reserve University

    David Bailey, St. Norbert College

    Mark Belk, Brigham Young University

    Nancy Boury, Iowa State University

    Lisa Bonneau, Metropolitan Community College – Blue River

    Graciela Brelles-Marino, California State University Pomona

    Mark Browning, Purdue University

    Sue Chaplin, University of St. Thomas

    George Cline, Jacksonville State University

    Deb Cook, Georgia Gwinnett College

    Diane Day, Clayton State University

    Frank Dirrigl, The University of Texas Pan American

    Waneene Dorsey, Grambling State University

    Nick Downey, University of Wisconsin La Crosse

    Rick Duhrkopf, Baylor University

    Kristy Duran, Adams State University

    Stan Eisen, Christian Brothers University

    Brent Ewers, University of Wyoming

    Myriam Feldman, Lake Washington Institute of Technology

    Michael Fine, Virginia Commonwealth University

    Linda Flora, Delaware County Community College

    Thomas Freeland, Walsh University

    David Grisé, Texas A & M University – Corpus Christi

    Andrea Hazard, SUNY Cortland

    Michael Hedrick, University of North Texas

    Linda Hensel, Mercer University

    Mark Kopeny, University of Virginia

    Norman Johnson, University of Massachusetts Amherst

    Grace Lasker, Lake Washington Institute of Technology Walden University

    Sandy Latourelle, SUNY Plattsburgh

    Theo Light, Shippensburg University

    Clark Lindgren, Grinnell College

    James Malcolm, University of Redlands

    Mark Meade, Jacksonville State University

    Richard Merritt, Houston Community College

    James Mickle, North Carolina State University

    Jasleen Mishra, Houston Community College

    Dudley Moon, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

    Shobhana Natarajan, Brookhaven College

    Jonas Okeagu, Fayetteville State University

    Diana Oliveras, University of Colorado Boulder

    John Peters, College of Charleston

    Joel Piperberg, Millersville University

    Johanna Porter-Kelley, Winston-Salem State University

    Robyn Puffenbarger, Bridgewater College

    Dennis Revie, California Lutheran University

    Ann Rushing, Baylor University

    Sangha Saha, City College of Chicago

    Edward Saiff, Ramapo College of New Jersey

    Brian Shmaefsky, Lone Star College System

    Robert Sizemore, Alcorn State University

    Marc Smith, Sinclair Community College

    Frederick Spiegel, University of Arkansas

    Frederick Sproull, La Roche College

    Bob Sullivan, Marist College

    Mark Sutherland, Hendrix College

    Toure Thompson, Alabama A&M University

    Scott Thomson, University of Wisconsin – Parkside

    Allison van de Meene, University of Melbourne

    Mary White, Southeastern Louisiana University

    Steven Wilt, Bellarmine University

    James Wise, Hampton University

    Virginia Young, Mercer University

    Leslie Zeman, University of Washington

    Daniel Zurek, Pittsburg State University

    Shobhana Natarajan, Alcon Laboratories, Inc.

    Watch the video: Biology Original Mix (August 2022).