Information

1.4.11.8: Plant Cells - Biology

1.4.11.8: Plant Cells - Biology



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss features of plant cells

Why do plant cells look like little rectangles? Look at Figure 1 and notice how all the cells seem to stack on each other, with no spaces in between. Might this allow the cells to form structures that can grow upright?

Organs in Plants?

Your body includes organ systems, such as the digestive system, made of individual organs, such as the stomach, liver, and pancreas, which work together to carry out a certain function (in this case, breaking down and absorbing food). These organs, in turn, are made of different kinds of tissues, which are groups of cells which work together to perform a specific job. For example, your stomach is made of muscle tissue to facilitate movement and glandular tissue to secrete enzymes for chemical breakdown of food molecules. These tissues, in turn, are made of cells specialized in shape, size, and component organelles, such as mitochondria for energy and microtubules for movement.

Plants, too, are made of organs, which in turn are made of tissues. Plant tissues, like ours, are constructed of specialized cells, which in turn contain specific organelles. It is these cells, tissues, and organs that carry out the dramatic lives of plants.

Plant Cells

Plant cells resemble other eukaryotic cells in many ways. For example, they are enclosed by a plasma membrane and have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. A typical plant cell is represented by the diagram in Figure 2.

Plant Cell Structures

Structures found in plant cells but not animal cells include a large central vacuole, cell wall, and plastids such as chloroplasts.

  • The large central vacuole is surrounded by its own membrane and contains water and dissolved substances. Its primary role is to maintain pressure against the inside of the cell wall, giving the cell shape and helping to support the plant.
  • The cell wall is located outside the cell membrane. It consists mainly of cellulose and may also contain lignin , which makes it more rigid. The cell wall shapes, supports, and protects the cell. It prevents the cell from absorbing too much water and bursting. It also keeps large, damaging molecules out of the cell.
  • Plastids are membrane-bound organelles with their own DNA. Examples are chloroplasts and chromoplasts. Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis. Chromoplasts make and store other pigments. They give flower petals their bright colors.

Types of Plant Cells

There are three basic types of cells in most plants. These cells make up ground tissue, which will be discussed in another concept. The three types of cells are described in table below. The different types of plant cells have different structures and functions.

Type of CellStructureFunctionsExample
Parenchymalcube-shaped

loosely packed

thin-walled

relatively unspecialized

contain chloroplasts

photosynthesis

cellular respiration

storage

food storage tissues of potatoes

Collenchymalelongated

irregularly thickened walls

support

wind resistance

strings running through a stalk of celery

Sclerenchymalvery thick cell walls containing ligninsupport

strength

tough fibers in jute (used to make rope)


Remove duplicates, perform multi-dimensional Venn analyses, or generate random lists of identifiers.

Follow us on Facebook to receive occassional updates about the BAR: facebook.com/BioAnalyticResource

Funding News

EFP Wheat

Try our new Wheat eFP Browser, published together an extensive analysis of gene expression of homeologous genes in wheat with Cristobal Uauy and colleagues in Science Magazine!

EPlant

ePlant helps biologists visualize the natural connections between DNA sequences, natural variation (polymorphisms), molecular structures, protein-protein interactions, and gene expression patterns by combining several data visualization tools with a zoomable user interface Waese et al. 2017.

Thank you!

Thanks for liking us more than 1000 times on Facebook. If you haven't clicked that button yet, like us to keep up-to-date with the latest BAR and plant bioinformatics news. It might help us get funding down the road too!

In celebration of the 25 th anniversary of CMBL, we have put together this collection of the most highly cited papers published in the journal over the last 25 years. We hope you enjoy reading through the historical ‘scientific journey’ of the journal and can appreciate how much our technology and knowledge has advanced. We look forward to another 25 years!

Human cardiac stem cells expressing the W8B2 marker (W8B2+ CSCs) were recently identified and proposed as a new model of multipotent CSCs capable of differentiating into smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and immature myocytes. Nevertheless, no characterization of ion channel or calcium activity during the differentiation of these stem cells has been reported-until now.

Macrophage polarization by MSC-derived CXCL12 determines tumor growth

Authors: Shabnam Babazadeh, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri, Vahid Siavashi, Mohadeseh Sahlabadi, Mostafa Hajinasrollah and Mohamad Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi

Content type: Research Letter

Autophagy receptors as viral targets

Content type: Review Letter

Β-elemene alleviates airway stenosis via the ILK/Akt pathway modulated by MIR143HG sponging miR-1275

Authors: Guoying Zhang, Cheng Xue and Yiming Zeng

LncRNA TP73-AS1 promotes oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis of endothelial cells in atherosclerosis by targeting the miR-654-3p/AKT3 axis

Authors: Jia Ni, Zhen Huang and Dan Wang

Circular RNA expression profile in transgenic diabetic mouse kidneys

Authors: Xuan Xiong, Changchun Liu, Meiren Shen, Qian Yang, Qiang Zhao, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaoshi Zhong and Zhiwei Wang

Content type: Research Letter

P62 links the autophagy pathway and the ubiqutin–proteasome system upon ubiquitinated protein degradation

Authors: Wei Jing Liu, Lin Ye, Wei Fang Huang, Lin Jie Guo, Zi Gan Xu, Hong Luan Wu, Chen Yang and Hua Feng Liu

The usefulness of lactate dehydrogenase measurements in current oncological practice

Authors: Agata Forkasiewicz, Maja Dorociak, Kamilla Stach, Piotr Szelachowski, Renata Tabola and Katarzyna Augoff

Content type: Invited Review Letter

The role of advanced glycation end products in various types of neurodegenerative disease: a therapeutic approach

Authors: Parveen Salahuddin, Gulam Rabbani and Rizwan Hasan Khan

Cells of human breast milk

Authors: Malgorzata Witkowska-Zimny and Ewa Kaminska-El-Hassan

Latent viruses can cause disease by disrupting the competition for the limiting factor p300/CBP

Authors: Hanan Polansky and Hava Schwab


About

ASPB is a 501(c)(3) professional society devoted to advancing plant science research and education. It publishes three world-class journals and organizes conferences, and other educational activities that are key to the advancement of the science.

Mission

The American Society of Plant Biologists was founded in 1924 to promote the growth and development of plant biology, to encourage and publish research in plant biology, and to promote the interests, growth, and education of plant scientists in general. Over the decades the Society has evolved and expanded to provide a forum for molecular and cellular biology as well as to serve the basic interests of plant science. It publishes the highly cited and respected journals Plant Physiology and The Plant Cell. Membership spans six continents, and our members work in such diverse areas as academia, government laboratories, and industrial and commercial environments. The Society also has a large student membership. ASPB plays a key role in uniting the international plant science disciplines.

Membership

Membership in the American Society of Plant Biologists is open to anyone from any nation engaged with the full spectrum of plant science research from fundamental to applied.

What is a Plant Scientist?

A plant scientist specializes in the scientific study of plants. Within plant biology there are many areas of interest including cellular and molecular biology, genetics, development, evolution, physiology and biochemistry. Plant scientists are working world-wide in nearly all industries including academia, corporations, pharmacology, research, non-profits and government.

Headquarters

American Society of Plant Biologists
15501 Monona Drive
Rockville, MD 20855-2768 USA
Phone: 301-251-0560
Fax: 301-279-2996
[email protected]

The Gude Plant Sciences Center, given to the Society by the Adolph E. Gude, Jr. family, is maintained as the Society’s national headquarters.


1.4.11.8: Plant Cells - Biology

FREE Online Interactive Biology Games & Quiz Activities : Homework Help on Human Biology, Biology Terms, Biology Cells & Anatomy.

Title Grade Recommended age
General Biology : Biology Quiz Activities @ Biology quiz activities for kids, teens and school students. view worksheet 6 > 12 years
Living World : Biology Quiz Activities @ Find out about the fascinating world of animals and birds view worksheet 5 > 11 years
Ecology & Resources : Biology Quiz Activities @ Learn more about organisms, energy sources and our ecosystem.
view worksheet
6 > 12 years
Classification of Plants : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about the classification of plants. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Scientific Names of Plants - I : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about the scientific names of plants. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Scientific Names of Plants - II : Biology Quiz Activities Learn more about the scientific names of plants. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Classification of Animals : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about the classification of animals. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Biology : Scientific Names of Animals - I : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about the scientific names of animals. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Scientific Names of Animals - II : Biology Quiz Activities Learn more about the scientific names of animals.
view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Plant Cell Diagram : Biology Quiz Activities Identify parts of a plant cell diagram. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Animal Cell Diagram : Biology Quiz Activities Identify parts of an animal cell diagram. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Plant & Animal Cells I (General) : Biology Quiz Activities
Learn about plant and animal cells in general through questions. view worksheet
8 > 14 years
Plant & Animal Cells II (Parts & Structures) : Biology Quiz Activities
Learn about the parts of plant and animal cells and their structures. view worksheet
9 > 15 years
Plant & Animal Cells III (Parts & Functions) : Biology Quiz Activities
Learn about the parts of plant and animal cells and their functions. view worksheet
9 > 15 years
Mitosis : Biology Quiz Activities Questions about mitosis. view worksheet 10 > 16 years
Meiosis : Biology Quiz Activities Questions about meiosis.
view worksheet
10 > 16 years
Human Organ Systems I : Biology Quiz Activities Identify human organ systems on a diagram. view worksheet 5 > 11 years
Human Organ Systems II : Biology Quiz Activities Questions about human organ systems. view worksheet 5 > 11 years
Human Organ Systems III : Biology Quiz Activities Learn more about human organ systems through questions.
view worksheet
5 > 11 years
Skeletal System & Bones of Human Body I : Biology Quiz Activities
Locate bones in the human body on a diagram of skeletal system. view list
7 > 13 years
Skeletal System & Bones of Human Body II : Biology Quiz Activities
Identify bones in the human body and their skeletal position. view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Skeletal System & Bones of Human Body III : Biology Quiz Activities
Find the number of bones of each type in the human skeleton.
view theory
7 > 13 years
Human Circulatory System I : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about Circulatory System. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Human Circulatory System II : Biology Quiz Activities Learn more about Circulatory System. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Human Circulation : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about the process of circulation. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Human Circulation - Blood Vessels : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about arteries, veins and capillaries.
view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Human Digestive / Gastrointestinal System I : Biology Quiz Activities
Questions about Digestive / Gastrointestinal System . view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Human Digestive / Gastrointestinal System II : Biology Quiz Activities
Learn more about Digestive / Gastrointestinal System. view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Human Nutrition & Digestion : Biology Quiz Activities Questions about the processes of nutrition and digestion. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Human Nutrition & Digestion - Enzymes : Biology Quiz Activities Questions about enzymes.
view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Human Endocrine System : Biology Quiz Activities Questions about Endocrine System.
view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Excretory System : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about Excretory System.
view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Biology : Human Respiratory system : Biology Quiz Activities Questions about Respiratory System.
view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Sense Organs : Biology Quiz Activities Test your knowledge of sense organs.
view worksheet
7 > 13 years
Diseases - Causes & Symptoms : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about causes & symptoms of common diseases. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Diseases Causes and Pathogens : Biology Quiz Activities Learn about bacteria, viruses, worms & protozoa that cause disease. view worksheet 7 > 13 years
Health and Disease : Biology Quiz Activities Learn facts about health & disease. view theory 7 > 13 years

    Molecular Biology - DNA Quizzes & Activities
    Learn about genetics & DNA molecule - history, structure, composition and functionality through these .


1.4.11.8: Plant Cells - Biology


Early Plasmolysis

Late Plasmolysis

Topics Addressed:

Description of Investigation

Observation of a leaf of the water plant Elodea

Standards addressed:

BIOLOGY
Cell Biology
1. a. Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.

SEVENTH GRADE LIFE SCIENCE
Cell Biology
1. a. Students know cells function similarly in all living organisms.
1. b.Students know the characteristics that distinguish plant cells from animal cells, including chloroplasts and cell walls.

under normal conditions with a microscope.

Observation of plasmolysis when the leaf is flooded with 6%

Further observations when the plant leaf is rehydrated

  • Microscope
  • Elodea in aquarium water
  • Slides and Cover slips
  • Distilled water
  • 6% NaCl solution (salt water)
  • Paper towels or tissues
  • Prepare a wet mount of one leaf from the water plant Elodea using the water in which it is kept.
  • Observe the cells under normal conditions, and make a sketch of what you see.
  • While observing the leaf under the microscope, wick a solution of 6% NaCl (sodium chloride) across the slide.
  • Sketch your observations.
  • With the same leaf, try wicking distilled water across the slide.
  • Record your observations.

Study Guide:

  • Compare the location of chloroplasts in normal and plasmolyzed cells.
  • What was the cause for the change in the location of the chloroplasts in the two solutions?
  • Did the Elodea cell change shape? Why or why not?
  • Describe the location of the chloroplasts when the plasmolyzed cell was flooded with distilled water?
  • What was the cause for the change seen with distilled water?

The technique of "wicking" is used to draw a solution across the specimen on a slide. By placing a piece of tissue or paper towel at one edge (right) and dropping the solution at the edge of the other side (left), the solution is drawn or "wicked" across the specimen.


CSA is comprised of 34 faculty members, many which share appointments with the Barshop Aging Institute, the Greehey Childrens Cancer Institute, or the Biggs Alzheimer’s Institute. CSA faculty, postdoctoral fellows and students have many outstanding research accomplishments, particularly in the areas of Cancer Biology, Biology of Aging, Neurobiology, Genomics and Bioinformatics, DNA Repair and Mutagenesis, Cell & Organelle Biology, and Stem Cell Biology. Impressively, several scientific discoveries are currently in clinical trials.

CSA faculty are also outstanding educators. We host multiple training grants these include an IRACDA postdoctoral program for future educators and NIH and CPRIT-supported training grants in Cancer. Our graduate and postdoctoral trainees go on to pursue successful careers in academia, industry, and in medical professions. Our department has a long history of outstanding contributions to education and is proud of our record for teaching awards which far out-numbers those of any other department at the institution.


1.4.11.8: Plant Cells - Biology

We are a research intensive Department, with outstanding training opportunities for motivated undergraduates, graduate students, and postdoctoral fellows.

Research

From Integrative Biology and Wetland Ecology to Functional Genomics and Neurobiology, from Theoretical Population Genetics to Applied Infectious Disease and Cancer Research.

Undergraduate Studies

Our educators have a solid foundation in both teaching and research, and work to bring current research perspective and research skills into the classrooms and the teaching laboratories.

Graduate Studies

Our graduate programs teach the research and communication skills required for successful careers as independent scientists. Graduates go on to careers in universities, research institutions, or the biotechnology industry.

McMaster University will continue to host undergraduate academic activities remotely for the Spring/Summer/Intersession term with only a few exceptions for courses that need student access to specialized equipment.

Undergraduate Studies

Our educators have a solid foundation in both teaching and research, and work to bring current research perspective and research skills into the classrooms and the teaching laboratories.

Graduate Studies

Our graduate programs teach the research and communication skills required for successful careers as independent scientists. Graduates go on to careers in universities, research institutions, or the biotechnology industry.

Faculty

Our faculty are dedicated to the discovery, communication and application of knowledge through the interdisciplinary study of biological processes.

Research

Our research covers the entire spectrum of modern Biology, from Integrative Biology and Wetland Ecology to Functional Genomics and Neurobiology, from Theoretical Population Genetics to Applied Infectious Disease and Cancer Research.

Latest News

Biology Graduate Research Day

Wednesday, 17 February 2021

GRD is being held this Thursday, February 18th. Attached are the schedule and abstract book for the event. Schedule Here Abstract Here Read more

Sparkuhl Endowment

Dr. Joachim Sparkuhl (1950-2013) was a professional biologist, a scientist, a philosopher, a teacher, and a life-long student (more biographical information is LINKED here). He. Read more

2020 Biology Research/Thesis Information Night

The Department of Biology held it's annual Thesis and Research Information Night on Tuesday, October 27, 2020 via the Biology Undergrad Hub on Microsoft Teams. Read more

McMaster steps up to NPRI University Challenge

Group photo following presentation to Environment & Climate Change Canada (ECCC) scientists at Canada Centre for Inland. Read more

McMaster Biology on the cutting edge with at-home lab kits

McMaster Biology is excited to embark on a new Lab Adventure with our Summer 2020 BIO1A03-Cell and Molecular Biology students. Students will complete Summer 2020. Read more

Titan Arum Arthur in full bloom

The titan has bloomed, and we are open until 11pm tonight, and 11am - 5pm over the weekend. Follow our Instagram mcmasterbiogreenhouse for updates. Read more

Dr. Joanna Wilson Named University Scholar

Six McMaster professors have been named 2019 University Scholars, an award that recognizes the achievements of mid-career researchers. Recipients have distinguished themselves as international scholars and. Read more

Natalie D’Silva receives Schlumberger fellowship

Natalie D’Silva won’t be at the FirstOntario Concert Hall today to walk across the stage and receive her PhD. Instead, she’ll be at Brown. Read more

Scientists uncover crucial biological circuits

Tiny microscopic worms, invisible to the naked eye, are helping scientists to better understand an extraordinarily complex biological pathway that connects fat to overall health. Read more

Sarah Marzec wins poster award

Sarah Marzec has won the 2nd Biennial Meeting Pan-American Society for Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Read more

2016 / 17 Graduate Research Day

Join us for the 4th annual Graduate Research Day Ewart Angus Centre and HSC-1A6 – February 23, 2017 Read more


Abiotic Stress Signaling and Responses in Plants

As sessile organisms, plants must cope with abiotic stress such as soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Core stress-signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing. Stress signaling regulates proteins critical for ion and water transport and for metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming to bring about ionic and water homeostasis and cellular stability under stress conditions. Understanding stress signaling and responses will increase our ability to improve stress resistance in crops to achieve agricultural sustainability and food security for a growing world population.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Figures

Stress sensing and signaling in…

Stress sensing and signaling in different cell organelles. A. Model of dispersed stress…

The Ca 2+ -CBL-CIPK module mediates signaling of various ionic stresses. High Na…

Osmotic stress and ABA sensing…

Osmotic stress and ABA sensing and signaling. The Ca 2+ channel OSCA1 may…

Cold stress sensing and signaling.…

Cold stress sensing and signaling. Cold stress is sensed by membrane proteins such…

Model of systemic stress signaling.…

Model of systemic stress signaling. Local exposure to stress generates H 2 O…


Popular Links

Upcoming Talks

Weekly Seminar
The seminars are completed for the term.
[Details and schedule]

Ph.D. Defense
No talks scheduled.
[see Graduate Events]

Friday Philosophicals Graduate Seminars
The seminars are completed for the term.
[Details and Schedule]

Thursday Physiologicals Graduate Seminars
Seminars are completed for the term.
Details and Schedule

Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Seminars
The seminars are completed for this term.
Details and Schedule

AAFC talks
No talks scheduled until further notice.
Details and Schedule


Watch the video: Leaf Cells Through a Microscope (August 2022).